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School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Business Studies

School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Business Studies

Abstract

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The study examined School Variables and Students’ Academic Performance in Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A sample of 315 students were selected using the simple random sampling technique.

Plain sheets were used in collecting the scores of the students for statistical analysis using t-test statistics. The results showed that students taught in a small class size, students taught with discussion method and male students performed significantly better than students taught in a large class size, students taught with demonstration method and female students respectively in Business studies in the area.

The null hypotheses were rejected at 0.05 level of significance. It was therefore recommended that, the recommended teacher-students’ ratio of 1:25 should be maintained in schools so as to facilitate the teaching-learning process and bring about better students’ academic performance in school examinations.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Education all over the world is acknowledged to be the most powerful and indispensable instrument for not only economic and political advancement but also for progress in all spheres of human endeavour. Hence, the Federal Government of Nigeria has adopted education as an instrument for nurturing productive citizenry and fostering national development (Ukpong, 2003).

These laudable and significant roles of education in the overall development of the country led to the establishment of schools in all parts of the country as well as the initiation of the teaching-learning process which of course is the platform through which the goals and philosophy of education are promoted.

However, the teaching-learning process in our schools today is influenced by a number of factors which mar its quality and effectiveness such, factors include; inadequate teaching and learning facilities, learners’ loose attitude to studies, and inconsistency in government policies and programmes on education etc.

Apart from the aforementioned factors, school variables such as class size, teaching methods adopted by teachers, gender differences etc can equally influence the nature and quality of the teaching-learning process with resultant effect on students’ academic performance.

Hoxby (2000), cited factors contributing to students poor academic performance especially in secondary schools to include lack of teachers, inadequate guidance and counseling services, location of the school and the size of the class. The situation is so frustrating in terms of lack of teachers to meet up with the recommended students/teacher ratio for effective teaching and learning.

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School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Business Studies

Classrooms and offices are in dilapidated condition and all these have adverse effect on students’ performance in schools. He further stressed that class size refers to the total number of students assigned to and enrolled in a specific class under the direction of a specific teacher.

The author maintained that in Nigerian secondary schools, the ratio of class size is about 1:50, this poses a different task to the teacher to give equal attention to all the students. In situation like this, the academic performance is bound to be low.

Consequently, the success or failure of any educational programme depends on the teacher. No matter how beautiful a school may be, without properly trained teachers to handle it, the whole thing will be mirage (Dashe, 2009).

Therefore, the behaviour, attitude and teaching method/technique adopted by a teacher in the teaching of any subject has a lot of academic effects on the learners. Teaching techniques are said to be various strategies a teacher used in meaningful teaching-learning situation (Esu, 2007). The author added that some teachers are impatient with the students’ understanding.

Accordingly, in most schools the learners constitute male and female students, gender difference is very important in this research owing to the expatiation of effect of gender on students’ academic performance in school.

Hence, if students must be made to develop their academic potentialities properly, gender differences, teaching methods and class size have to be well taken care of in schools. However, this presents and area for investigation.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Over the years, the teaching and learning of business studies in schools have increasingly become more challenging as a result of inadequate teaching-learning facilities with its resulting effect on students’ academic performance.

However, many educators, stakeholders in education sector have been viewing with serious concern about the performance of students in business studies in both internal and external examinations. A number of factors have been enumerated by researchers in the past to have accounted for the dwindling nature of students’ performance in the subject.

Measures to remedy this unpleasant situation have long been proffered by scholars and researchers, yet the poor performance of students in the subject has become a recurring feature in both internal and external examinations.

Moreover, available data have shown that little or no research has been carried out along the line of school variables in relation to students’ academic performance in Business Studies in our schools. There is no doubt therefore, that variables such as class size, teachers teaching methods and gender differences can affect the teaching-learning process which eventually lead to their poor academic performance.

It is against this background that this study on “School variables and student’ academic performance in Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area” became imperative with a view to suggesting measures that will ensure better students’ academic performance in the subject.

School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Business Studies

1.3    Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study was to examine school variables and students’ academic performance in business studies in junior secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Examine if there is a difference in the academic performance of students taught in a large class size and those taught in a small class size in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.
  2. Ascertain if there is a difference in the academic performance of students taught with demonstration method and those taught with discussion method in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.
  3. Assess if there is a difference in the academic performance of female and male students in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.
  4. Suggest ways by which the academic performance of students in business studies can be improved regardless of school variables.

1.4    Significance of the Study

The study will be of immense benefit to teachers, students, educationists, government and researchers in the following ways:

  1. It will help teachers to gain insight into the quality and quantity of learning materials that could be used in a class with specific number of learners.
  2. It will help teachers to know the teaching method that would help students in a large class to participate actively during lesson.
  3. It will reveal if male and female students performed better than their counterparts in business studies in junior secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.
  4. The study will also expose the effect of gender difference on students’ academic performance in both internal and external examinations.
  5. It will help educational administrators and teachers to know educational placement of students offering business studies.
  6. Finally, the study will also serve as a reference point for further researches on similar or related topics.

1.5    Research Questions

The following research questions were raised in line with the objectives of the study:

  1. What difference exists in the academic performance of students taught in a large class size and those taught in a small class size in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area?
  2. What difference exists in the academic performance of students taught with demonstration method and those taught with discussion method in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area?
  3. What difference exists in the academic performance of female and male students in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area?
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1.6    Research Hypotheses

Based on the objectives and research questions of this study, the following hypotheses were formulated:

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught in a large class size and those taught in a small class size in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught with demonstration method and those taught with discussion method in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.
  3. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of female and male students in business studies in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

1.7    Delimitation

This study was delimited to school variables and students’ academic performance in business studies in junior secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. The main focus were class size, teaching methods and gender differences as the main variables for investigation.

1.8    Limitations of the Study

Limitations are bound to occur in a study of this magnitude. The major limitations encountered in the study were inadequate finance, insufficient research materials regarding the research topic, time factor and researcher’s academic workload.

1.9    Definition of Terms

The following terms used in the study were conceptualized by the researcher as follows:

School: A place where people go to learn

Variables: Something that is likely to change

Students’ academic performance: The performance of students on taught lesson as determined by their test and examination scores.

Teaching method: The way the teacher teaches and the strategies he adopts in presenting facts to the learners.

Class size: The total number of students assigned to and enrolled in a specific class under the direction of specific teacher.

Gender: This connotes being male and female.

School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Business Studies

School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Business Studies

School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Business Studies

School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Business Studies

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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