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Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

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 ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria. Three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Literature related to the study was reviewed.

A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of all the students of University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria. A sample size of two hundred [200] respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire and Performance Test (PT).

The result from the instrument was analyzed using independent t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significant.  Findings from the study revealed that students who do not abuse Alcohol have a better performance in school than those who abuse marijuana. It also showed that students who do not involve themselves in alcohol abuse perform academically better than their counterpart who abuse alcohol. Finally, the finding also shows that students’ who do not abuse tobacco performed academically better than students who abuse tobacco. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Historically, herbs, leaves and plants are forms of drugs that are used to heal and control diseases. Plants have been utilised as medicines for since creation. The specific plants to be used and the methods of application for particular ailments were passed down through oral history from one generation to the other (Khalid, Zaidi, & Ahmad, 2014). There is evidence that intentionally fermented alcohol existed from as early 10,000 BC when it was used in religious worship, for recreation, medicinal use and quenching thirst by long distance travellers.

Marijuana was used as medicine from 2,737BC in China then later in the 19th century, active substances used in production of drugs like cocaine and morphine were extracted and freely prescribed by physicians for various ailments and even sold over the counter (Magidson & Jessica, 2016). Drug is referred to as a substance that could bring about a change in the biological function through its chemical actions (Chebukaka, 2017).

It is also considered as a substance that modifies perceptions, cognition, mood, behaviour and general body functions (Balogun, 2016). This could thus be considered as chemical modifiers of the living tissues that could bring about psychological and behavioural changes (Nnachi, 2017). The use of drugs in itself does not constitute any danger, because drugs correctly administered have been a blessing to bring healing.

Unfortunately, in contemporary times certain drugs that initially produced effects such as ecstasy, sense of feeling good, serenity and power have grown into a problem of dependence and abuse (Ekpenyong, 2012). Drugs such as tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, alcohol among others tend to stimulate the nervous system of an individual to behave in abnormal and extra ordinary manner, leading such individual to lose his/her sense of being.

The abuse of drugs can cause serious irreversible damage to such individual’s physical and psychological development. As Manbe (2018) pointed out, common incidence that happens around us today is as a result of drug abuse and that if care is not taken, this could lead to mental disorders.

The World Health Organization defined drug abuse as a “state” of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic) (WHO, 2016).

Drug abuse are disorders evident in the deliberate use of chemical substances for reasons other than intended medical purposes and which occasioned physical, mental, emotional, or social impairment to the users (Mehta & Rouf, 2013) argued that the use of drugs like Benylin with codeine, Tutolin with codeine, for medical purposes like the whooping cough is not drug abuse but becomes abused only when it is geared towards producing some desired behaviours, physical dependency, addiction, and/or constitute a nuisance to the society.

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

More so, drugs can be said to be abused when they are used without due authorization from formally qualified and registered persons who, according to the laws of the land, must approve their use. This observation is borne out by several studies on ill behaviours particularly among undergraduate students in tertiary institutions (Abdullahi, 2015, Obiamaka, 2014, Fawa, 2013).

The causes of drug abuse among undergraduate students may be sociological, psychological, out of inquisitiveness, boredom, to ease fear, develop sexual and physical pleasures, or as a result of family background among other things (Ngesu, 2018). The sequence of usage ranges from tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other higher substances.

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Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Undergraduate students are gradually engaging in prescribed drugs, particularly narcotics which are given to relieve severe pain and stimulant medications, which treat conditions like attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy (Turner in Dankano & Garba, 2020). A long-lasting effect in learning abilities of the user is common for those students who start using drugs at a younger age. Drug abuse causes some areas of the brain not to develop properly leading to learning disabilities.

Persistent abuse of drugs further leads to loss of memory and judgment. Many undergraduate students who engage in drug abuse tend to be forgetful and can hardly focus particularly in their studies; it can also lead to loss of short-term memory. Drug abuse may weaken memory by slowing down the co-ordination materials and may decrease student’s ability to remember such materials that was learned prior to using the drugs (Magidson & Jessica, 2016).

Every individual grow towards becoming functioning members of the society, in the process of growth, gains empowerment through school learning which act as a determinant for academic excellence.

This commitment on the part of Government and other non-state actors has extended to ensure that students are properly groomed and tutored on how best to effectively manage themselves in an ever-changing world. These changes have tempted some students to believe that, for them to be able to achieve academic expectations they need to be involve in the use of hard drugs (Brook, etal. 2009).

Drug abuse, is generally viewed as the use of a substance that modifies mood or behaviour in a manner characterized by a maladaptive pattern of use. Musto (2008) says that drug abuse is the use of drug that can cause disorder characterized by the use of a mood or behavioral pattern resulting in significant impairment, such as failure to fulfill social or occupational obligations or recurrent use in situations in which it is physically dangerous to do so or which end in legal problems

Drug abuse is the use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual negatively, socially, cognitively and physically. Social effects may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teachers, and school authorities.

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Cognitive effects relate to the individual’s lack of concentration on academic work and memory loss. Lewinsohn (2007) defines a drug as any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects the physical, mental and emotional functioning of people. It can enter the body through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection. Drug abuse amongst the global youth population has become a serious problem affecting everyone.

Drug addiction has led many people into downward spiral of hopelessness, ranging from glue-sniffing street children and teenage ecstasy, heroin alcohol, tobacco and cocaine (Nacada, 2005). Drug abuse is responsible for lost wages, destruction of property in schools, soaring health care costs and broken families. It is a problem which affects us all as parents, children, teachers, Government officials, taxpayers and workers.

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

The use of hard drugs by students in Nigeria has become an embarrassing phenomenon to parents, schools, government authorities, and the society at large. The students today are the leaders of tomorrow and they deserve good education in the right direction (Kothari, 2006)

One of the most common consequences of drug use is keeping up with academic responsibilities. According to, National Institute on Alcohol and Alcoholism (2005) in United State of America about 25% of students experience difficulty in academics due to drug Abuse.

Such difficulties include earning low grades, doing poorly on test, missing class and falling behind in academic performance. The common drugs abuse by these students includes alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana etc.  Students who involved themselves in the abuse of these illicit drugs hardly keep up with academic work. Johnson (2012) posits that the abuse of drugs by students is a presumed indicator of academic failure. Even students who don’t use drugs may suffer academic challenge as a result of peer influence.

Another effect of drugs includes taking care of friends on drugs and being victims of assault which can affect school work of students who don’t use drug. These consequences can have dramatic end results. Drug use undermine academic mission of schools, colleges and universities. Drug use and its effect on students’ performance can lead to a decline in the overall academic performance of a school as a result schools may face declining retention rates and poor reputation.

Schools with reputation of ‘drug use’ may attract students who engage in high-risk behaviors and may discourage prospective students who are looking for an academically vigorous institution. In a similar vein, undergraduate students found in the acts of drug abuse are often times academically and socially less developed as they are not respected and recognized to make reasonable contributions to any development.

This is because drug abuse does not only downgrade the academic performance of students, but also affects the moral, physical and general buildup of the students (Dankano & Garba, 2020). Thus, youths who are perceived as the leaders of tomorrow and are being trained in various tertiary institutions in diverse field have veered to the act of abusing drugs.

This act does not in any way contribute to the development of the students and as such the expected output of these students can greatly diminish their academic performances because of their persistence to drug abuse (Staff, 2012). It was on this background that the researcher was interested to examine the effect of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria.

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Over the years, the abuse of drugs such as tobacco, sedatives, Marijuana (Indian hemp), cocoa leaves, alcohol, heroin, morphine, cocaine, inhalants (such as glue), amphetamines to mention but a few have drastically been on the increase. This is disturbing globally as well as in our circumstantial setting among undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria.

It is widely believed that drug abusers are often mentally derailed and are unable to perform well in their academics. This is more pronounced in science courses, such as computer science, medicine and allied studies, which require high attentiveness for better understanding. Profligacy in drug abuse by undergraduate students does not only tend to affect their academic performance, but also affect their cognitive quotient and thus exposing them to crime and health challenges (Jonathan & Samuel, 2018).

Despite worldwide concern and education about the dangers of drug abuse, many undergraduate students ignorantly or knowingly depend on one drug or the other for their daily lifestyle. It therefore becomes necessary to carry out this study in order to determine the effect of drug abuse on academic performance of undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria.

Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the extent to which alcohol Abuse influence students’ academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria.
  2. Examine the extent to which the use of tobacco influence students’ academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria.
  3. Examine the extent to which the use of marijuana influence students’ academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study will be of immense benefit to students, parents, teachers, curriculum developers and the society at large. Specifically, the study would benefit the followings:

To the students, it is hoped that the result will aid them to uncover hidden potentials in them. By seeing the influence of certain behaviours like aggressiveness, altruistic tendencies, truancy and their interactional effects on fellow students, teachers, and parents and on their learning potentials.

To the parents as it would improve their relationship with their children, since parents are in a better position to understand their children with consideration.

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

It will also act as an eye opener to parents for them to know that a close relationship with their children should be developed to check certain behaviour that may affect their wards performance in school.

The results of this study will help teachers to understand more and will find it easy to deal with different categories of learners from different homes.

The curriculum planners would also benefit immensely since it will provide a basis for them to design the curriculum, bearing in mind various behaviour of individuals and possibly plan realistic strategy for achieving the objectives and goals of education.

Finally, the society stand to benefit from this study, as there will be farewell to some of the unwanted behaviours that tend to hinder the academic performance of the students.

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The knowledge gained from this study will assist Government through the ministry of education to design policies and programmes which will help enhance family cohesion so parent will be able to relate better with their children. This will help the development of well-behaved individuals by modifying their behaviour properly.

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

1.5 Research Questions

In order to achieve the derived objective of this research study, the following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. To what extent does the use of alcohol influence the academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria?
  2. To what extent does the use of tobacco influence the academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria?
  3. To what extent does the use of marijuana influence the academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean performance of students between those who abuse alcoholism and those who do not.
  2. There is no significant difference in the mean performance of students between those who abuse tobacco and those who do not.
  3. There is no significant difference in the mean performance of students between those who abuse marijuana and those who do not.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint was a major limitation which hampers the effective movement of the researcher during data collection in the area of study.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

There are many factors affecting the academic performance of students, but this research study only focus attention on the effect of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in University of Ibadan, ‎Oyo State‎, ‎Nigeria.

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

1.9 Definition of Terms

Academic Performance: This is a term often used in educational institution to describe the extent of performance of educational objectives.

Alcohol Abuse: This is the excess of drinking that result in harm to one’s health, interpersonal relationships, or ability to work.

Drug Abuse: The use of drugs or substance for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively and physically.

Tobacco: This refers to the taking of illicit substance, this is done by smoking this substance in pipe or orally.

Student: Refers to a group of learners in an institution of learning.

School environment: School environment are factors within the students’ surrounding in the school that influence the teaching-learning process such as the teachers, equipment, buildings amongst others.

Drug – Any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning.

Effect – the power to change or affect someone, the power to cause changes without directly forcing them to happen.

Barbiturates – They are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants. They produce effects ranging from mild sedation to total anaesthesia.

Binge Drinking – drinking lots of alcohol in a short space of time or drinking to get drunk or feel the effects of alcohol

Cognitive: Here refers to mental functions of the students in school.

School: This is the institution dedicated to teaching and learning.

University: Higher education is tertiary education leading to the award of an academic degree. Higher education, which makes up a component of post-secondary, third-level, or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.

Academic: Here refers to as belonging to an academy or institution of learning.

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Effect of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in University

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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