The Effect of Teachers Motivational Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Agricultural Science
This study examined teachers’ motivational strategies and students’ Academic performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Three null hypotheses were formulated in line with specific objectives to give direction to the study. The correction research design was adopted for the study. The population of study comprised all Agricultural Science Teachers and Students in the study area. A sample size of 140 respondents was used for the study. A Structured questionnaire titled” Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and students Academic Performance Questionnaire (TMSSAPQ)” “was used for data collection. The data generated for the study were analyze using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC).
The results showed Teachers’ Residence, Provision of the functional library, well equipped laboratory and Students’ Academic Performance. It was concluded that there is a strong positive relationship between Teachers’ Motivation and Students’ Academic Performance in Agricultural Science. Several recommendations were made, one of which is that government and school administration should endeavour to provide teachers with free and better accommodations especially those who are posted to the rural areas where the bulk of houses are not in good condition or urban centers where the cost of accommodation is high. This will go along way in motivating teachers for greater job performance thereby improving students’ academic performance.
1.1 Background to the Study
Motivation is an indispensable factor in the teaching–learning process. The issues of motivation of teachers in education and the impact on academic performance are considered as important aspects of effective teaching and learning. The impact of motivation on the job performance of a teacher cannot be undermined. As students need motivation to do well in school, the teacher should be equally motivated by the employer to give his/ her best in the teaching service.
However, for over two decades, the teachers of Nigeria under the aegis of the Nigeria union of teachers (NUT) have been consistent in their request for separate conditions of service and salary structures for teachers in primary and post primary schools in the country. This situation has arisen because of certain economic factors. Nakpodia (2006) maintained that in any educational arrangement, success lies in the commitment of the teacher. Therefore, the relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. They probably rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, teaching competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance.
In addition, the needs for satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. Job satisfaction in this context is the ability of the teaching job meet teachers’ needs and improve their teaching performance. Accordingly, it is assumed that teachers’ agitations and demands are beyond the resource of the ministry of Education or the Government. As a result, the government of Nigeria and the Nigerian union of teachers (NUT) are in a constant stand- off over the increase in salaries, benefit and improvement in working conditions of teachers.
Akande (2014) maintained that the federal and state government have argued that the present economic realities in the country cannot sustain the demanded increase in salaries, benefits, and improvements in working conditions of civil and public servants. Specifically, they argued that teachers’ demands are beyond the government resources. Another problem is the government’s position concerning the job performance of the teachers; they accused the teachers of negligence, laziness, purposeful lethargy, and lack of dedication and zeal to work. They further argued that teachers’ level of efficiency and effectiveness do not necessitate the constant request for salary increases, incentives and better working conditions while teachers o their part argued that the existing salary structure, benefits and working conditions do not satisfy their basic needs in as much as other sectors of the economy have bigger salary structure, better motivation and enhanced working conditions.
It is the believe of most scholars that the success or otherwise of the teaching-learning process depends on the teacher. This is true because the teacher occupies a central position in the teaching-learning process and whatever takes place in the process revolves around him or her. Hence, teachers need motivation and encouragement from their employers to bring out optimal performance in students (Muheeb, 2004). The absence of basic incentives for teachers may have a resultant effect on their student’s academic achievement. Teachers have the biggest impact on the success and flaws of the student’s academic performance because their motivation is essential in helping students learn. Efficient teaching and learning will take place when there is strong motivation in terms of wages and incentives from the teachers employers.
This motivation may be aroused by either extrinsic or intrinsic stimuli both of which are important in directing and regulating the learner’s behavior towards the attainment of the desired goals. Teachers should therefore be motivated through various ways which may include the organization of seminars and workshops, timely payment of salary and wages. Providing the required physical facilities like laboratories, residential houses, functional library and verbal encouragement. This will go a long way in motivating the teachers for optimal performance and consequently improve students’ academic performance in schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is a general public outcry on the poor academic performance of students in school. The general decline in students’ academic performance in schools has been an intractable problem in the nation’s educational system. The abysmal performance of students in school has not made possible for the realization of set goals and objectives in the teaching-learning process and is fast becoming a recurring decimal except something urgent is done to address it. The west Africa Examination Council has continued to raise concerns over the poor performance of students in senior secondary certificate examinations.
Most people have blamed the situation on the inefficiency of teachers and lack of teachers’ commitment to the discharge of their professional responsibilities sequel to poor motivation from their employers. Many teachers have left teaching in public schools for greener pasture in better-paying private schools as a result of lack of motivation and incentives needed. Students in most public schools are disadvantaged in that the classes are overcrowded and they do not have adequate learning facilities. In some instances, they lack adequate textbooks and laboratory equipments as a result, the students may lose hope in performing well in academic work.
This development is in sharp contrast to a private school where the numbers of students are few as there are adequate facilities and the teachers are willing to go the extra mile to ensure that the students perform well in the examination but the willingness to go extra mile to ensure good students performance may be frustrated when there is no motivation and encouragement to the side of the teachers. Although, it is believed that the reward for teachers is in heaven, but there is no doubt about the fact that if there is limited or no motivation for teachers in terms of good conditions of service, their commitment to duties may drastically reduce their morale which may in turn harm students performance. It is against this background, therefore, that this study “Teachers Motivational Strategies And Students Academic Performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area” becomes imperative and was carried out.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine teachers’ motivational strategies and students’ academic performance in agricultural science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area. The specific objective includes:
- to examine the relationship between teachers’ residence and students’ academic performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
- to examine the relationship between provision of a functional library and students’ academic performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
- to examine the relationship between well-equipped laboratories and students’ academic performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
- Research Questions
- To what extent is the relationship between teachers’ residence and students’ academic performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area?
- To what extent is the relationship between the provision of a functional library and students’ academic performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area?
- To what extent is the relationship between a well-equipped laboratory and students’ academic performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area?
- Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated in line with the specific objective of the study.
- There is no significant relationship between Teachers’ Residence and Students’ Academic Performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
- There is no significant relationship between Provision of Functional Library and Student’s Academic Performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
iii. There is no significant relationship between well-equipped laboratory and students academic performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
- Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be immense benefits to all and sundry in the educational sector in the following ways:
- it would reflect the assessment of the relationship between Teachers’ Residences, Provision of functional library and well equipped laboratory and students academic performance in schools.
- it would be of benefits to school managers and other stakeholders in the education industry because understanding the relationship between teachers motivation and students academic performance will enable them motivate teachers adequately to increase their productivity.
- The recommendations of this study would go a long way in bringing to the consciousness of teachers employers basic motivational strategies for teachers that will guarantee their teaching effectiveness thereby improving students academic performance.
- It would add to the body of existing literature on teachers motivational strategies and students’ academic performance.
- Finally, the findings of this study would serve as a reference material to researchers in conducting further studies on teachers’ motivational strategies in relation to student academic performance not only in Agricultural Science but other school subjects.
- Delimitation of the Study
This study was delimited to Teachers Motivational Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Agricultural Science in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The major factors that limit the scope of this study to Etim Ekpo Local Government Area were insufficient fund, the researchers’ academic work-load and the time frame for the completion of the research.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms:
The following terms used in this study were conceptualized by the researcher as explained below:
Teacher: A person whose occupation is teaching (imparting knowledge into school children).
Motivation: It is the inner state of mind that moves or activates someone to put more efforts in performing a task assigned to him.
Strategy: A plan that is geared towards achieving a purpose or goal.
Academic performance: The measure of the extent which learners in school acquired the set objectives of taught lessons by given test/ examination.
Relationship: They way in which two or more things are connected and affected by each other.
Teachers’ residence: A place or house where teachers live.
Library: A place where books are kept for study purpose.
Laboratory: A room or building used for scientific research, experiments/tests etc.