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Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils   

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ABSTRACT

This study is investigated child labour and academic performance in mathematics among primary school pupils in Etinan Local Government Area. The study adopted a survey research design from a population of 1,750 pupils, 200 pupils were randomly selected from 20 selected primary schools in the study area.

Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A four item questionnaire and the scores of the pupils in the 2014/2015 promotion examination in mathematics were used as data for this study. An independent t-test and person product moment correlation statistical techniques were used to test the hypotheses formulated.

Findings revealed that child labour exist among primary school in Etinan Local Government Area as well as children labour perform significantly poor in mathematics. Based on the findings therefore, recommendation were made that government should educate parents on the DANGERS of hawking and that parents should take time off to attend their families.  

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the study

Child labour is a case of physical hunting, neglect, biting, beating or mentally harassing the child through incessant criticism or threats for good reason simply put, it is the maltreatment of the child (Manly, 2005). Child labour takes various forms, including physical, sexual, emotional or psychological abuse and neglect (Leocard, 1995, Wisdom, 2009).

In 2002, 906, 00 children in united states were being maltreated, out of which 61% experienced, neglect, 19% were physically labour 10% were sexually molested, and 5% were emotional or psychologically labour and estimated 1, 500 children and were confirmed death from maltreatment (Department of Health and Human services 2003).

Child labour is an issue of grieve concern to the counselors, school teachers and administrators, parents and government even the world over. A child is any living human being of age between birth and 18 years. A child is a valuable gift from God and should be cared for. In some homes, parents-child relationship is a source of distress and trauma which results in parents maltreating their child physically, sexually, psychologically and neglect by failure to provide them with love, care, attention and other needs.

In Nigeria, incident of child labour is common place (UNICEF, 1996: Bukoye, 2004). Stanley (2003) revealed that, of 8 million children under child labour in the world (UNICEF, 1996) 3.2 million were out of school in Nigeria. In Calabar, one observes children hawking along the streets, filling station and motor parks. In schools, there are cases of parental failure in paying school fees of their wards and making provisions for books. There are also cases of duping of children in refuse heaps latrines and pits. Teachers are seen in schools beating children mercilessly in the name of discipline.

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1.2   Statement of the Problems

Despite all the efforts in the present government in Akwa Ibom State to provide free and compulsory education to all children of school age, many children of Etinan Local Government Area are still hawking during schools hours; some are sent out as house helps, while others engage in plenty jobs after school in other to cater for their physiological needs (Adasigwun 2013).

These prevailing situations are some kind of labour done to Nigerian children. These set of children according to Akpan (2010) do not have time to read books after school. It is an established fait that many of such children perform poorly academically since only attention is paid to the academic pursuit (Derasoro Adasiwun 2013).This study therefore investigates child labour and academic achievement of pupils in mathematics in Etinan Local Government Area. 

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate into the influence of child labour and academic achievement in mathematics among primary school pupils in Etinan Local Government Area (as a case study). For the purpose of this study, two main objectives will be discussed namely;

  1. The various forms of child abuse
  2. How they affect child’s academic achievement in mathematics and some solution to the problem of child labour and its effects in respect to academic performance in (mathematics).

1.4   Significance of the Study      

The significance of this study is predicated on the fact     that, if nothing is done to stop child labour then the increasingly poor academic performances/achievement of pupils will be inevitable in education section. To this effect, this student will go a long way to mitigate the prevailing circumstance mathematics in Etinan Local Government Area in particular also Akwa Ibom State in general which come as a result of child labour in the society, through seminar,    presentation and crusade against child labour in the society. 

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1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions were asked to direct this study.

  • To what extend close child labour exist among primary school pupils in Etinan Local Government Area?
  • To what extend does child labour affect academic achievement in mathematics among primary school pupils in Etinan Local government Area?
  • What factors are the causes of child labour noticed among primary school pupils in Etinan Local Government Area? 

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

1.6  Research Hypotheses

  • There is no significance difference in academic achievement between pupils that were sexually abused and those that were not sexually abused.
  • There is no significance difference between in academic achievement between pupils used as hawkers by parents / guardians and those that were not used as hawkers.

1.7   Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to Child labour and Academic achievement in mathematics among Primary School pupils in    Etinan Local Government Area. 

1.8   Definition of Terms

The following terms are hereby defined to place them continually for this study:

Labour: is terms used when something is improperly used, misuses, wrongly, used.

Child: A young human being below the age of 18 or anyone under the age of puberty.

Child labour: Can be defined as a wrong use of a child, it can means the unjust custom or practice that has been established by the elderly one on a child.

Academic Achievement: is the desired result of a pupil or a scholar.

Mathematics: refers to science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement.

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter is devoted with the procedure used in carrying out the study and the possible design used in achieving the result of the analysis as presented under the following subsections:-

  • Area of the study
  • Research Design
  • Population of the study
  • Sample and sampling Technique
  • Research Instrument
  • Validation of the Instrument
  • Administration of Instrument
  • Data Preparation
  • Method of Data analysis

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

3.2  Research Design

The research design adopted in this study was a survey research aimed at identifying child labour and Academic achievement in mathematics among primary school in Etinan local government of Akwa Ibom State.

3.3 Population of the Study

The population of the study consisted of all primary school pupils in Etinan Local Government Area; the targeted population for the study therefore comprises all the 1750 pupils in Etinan in Local Government Area. 

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3.4   Sample and Sampling Technique

About 20 primary schools were selected by simple random sampling techniques. The selection process includes public schools and private primary schools. In each school ten (10) pupils were selected making a total of 200 pupils, 100 pupils for public schools and 100 pupils for private schools.

3.5   Research Instrument

Questionnaires were the only instrument used for the study. The questionnaire consisted of twenty items which were developed through the assistance of the project supervisor. The items on the questionnaire were on the five points like scales ranging from strongly Agree, Agreed, Disagreed, Strongly Disagreed to undecided.

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

This chapter presents summary about this study, them recommends and draw conclusion as follows:

5.1 Summary

The research work was carried out to study effect of child labour on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Etinan Local Government Area.

The study made use of survey research design. Two research question and two research hypotheses were formulated to sine direction to the study in order to achieve the state objectives.

Two hundred (200) primary school pupils were educated and studied Data generated were subject to independent t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlational analysis.

Chapter one introduces the subject Areas that embark on the background to the study. Definition of terms used and many others are discussed. Chapter two and three deal with the literature review and research methodology respectively. Hence the area of study, sample size, instrument used for the data and data collection, sample procedure, data analysis and method of data analysis are discussed.

Chapter four focuses on the research findings. The data are analyzed table are drawn and explained in line with the research questions. Chapter five focuses on the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study. Finally, there are some recommendations for further researches in the work.

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

Child Labour and Academic Performance in Mathematics among Primary School Pupils

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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