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Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

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Abstract

This study was designed to examine teachers’ teaching techniques and students’ academic performance in Social Studies in Itu Local Government Area. Three research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The design adopted for the study was a survey research design. The population of the study comprises of all the nine (9) public secondary schools in the study area totaling of one thousand eight hundred (1800) JSS 1- 3 Social Studies Students in Itu

Local Government Area. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two hundred (200) students from five (5) selected secondary schools from JS3 class in the study area. Forty (40) students were chosen from each of the secondary schools which amounted to two hundred (200) students. Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT) was used as an instrument for data collection.

The data generated from the instrument was analysed using Independent t-test statistical tools. The findings from the study revealed that teachers’ teaching techniques (demonstration, discussion and discovery) has a strong significant influence on student’s academic performance in social studies in Secondary Schools. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that teachers should expose their students to different teaching techniques to encourage interaction, engagement and self-motivation among the learners. 

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Education is conceived as a process of transmission of factual knowledge and the belief in the efficacy of education as a powerful instrument of development that has led many nations to commit much of their wealth to the establishment of educational institutions at various levels. The quality and quantity of human and physical resources determine a nation’s growth and development. The core of education is teaching and learning, and teaching-learning process works better when there are effective teachers working with students (Osuala, 2013).

 Moreover, the primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal, 2014). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching techniques that best suit with specific objectives and level exist outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered techniques to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered techniques.

The teaching technique used by the teacher in teaching determined the extent of academic performance of students in schools. The place of a teachers’ teaching technique is to inculcate knowledge to the learners and is crucial to the educational goals. According to Keen (2016), each student learns best using strategies and objectives that reflect his experiences, abilities, aptitudes and interest. The various instructional techniques mostly used include the lecture technique, demonstration techniques, discovery techniques, discussion techniques and field trip technique etc.

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Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

According to Osuala (2013), teachers teaching techniques have been defined in different ways depending on the philosophical situation taken by the author. Keen (2016) viewed teaching techniques as variety of ways in which a learning task is managed to facilitate the learning process. This means the way of organizing the participants and the type of methods used is determined by different factors such as number of students, age and the topic to be taught.

For effective teaching to take place, the teacher must stimulate, encourage and maintain active participation of the students, through the selection of appropriate teaching technique. This would require a balance between what is taught and how it is taught. Thus, successful teaching in education does not depend only on the teachers’ mastery of the subject matter but also the teaching technique used.

Also, Omosewo (2014) considers teaching techniques as the art of creating learning situations and making pupils think by providing books, equipments, materials and questions to be answered. From the definitions given, it could be deduced that the responsibility of the selection and adoption of teaching method to be used in the teaching of a subject or a particular topic lies on the shoulder of the teacher since there is no stereotyped method or strategy to be adopted.

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teaching techniques are used to impart knowledge to students; they are the means by which the teacher attempts to impart the desired learning or experience (Ndirangu, 2017). The choice of a particular instructional technique by the teacher is determined by number of factors which includes among them, the content to be taught, the objectives which the teacher plans to achieve availability of teaching/learning resources, the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if conventional teaching aids are not available while an evaluation and a follow-up activities on Individual learner differences must be maintained (Ndirangu, 2017).

On the strength of the above, this study sought to examine the influence of teachers’ teaching techniques on students’ academic performance in Social Studies in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

1.2   Statement of the Problem

There has been a drastic reduction in the standard of performance by students at all levels of education in Nigeria in the past decades. The fall in the standard of education in Nigeria is traceable to many factors which are rooted in psychological, physiological or environmental factors. These students persistent poor performance in Social Studies has been blamed on several factors among them are: inappropriate teaching techniques adopted by the teachers during teaching and learning process.

Notwithstanding, there are many teaching techniques that exist in education, all these techniques are meant to make the teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. This deplorable performance of secondary school students in Social Studies has aroused the interest of the teachers, government, educational stakeholders, parents, students and the general public on the need to improve the learning outcome of the students on the subject. As such, this study aimed at examining teachers teaching techniques on students’ academic performance in Social Studies in Itu Local Government Area.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ teaching techniques on student’s academic performance in Social Studies in Itu Local Government Area.  Specifically the study seeks to:

  1. Examine demonstration technique on academic performance of students in Social Studies
  2. Examine discussion technique on academic performance of students in Social Studies.
  3. Assess discovery technique on academic performance of students in Social Studies.

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

1.4   Significance of the Study

        The study will be considered significant in a number of ways:

  1. The study will be beneficial to the teachers in that they will be able to select appropriate teaching techniques and materials to suit different lessons for effective teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools.
  2. The teachers and the students will realize that the understanding of lessons in Social Studies can be highly improved through demonstrations and class activities rather than the talk and chalk approach.
  3. This study will help the policy makers, educational planners to tackle the relative academic problem hence creating avenue for predicting academic success.
  4. It will also help the teachers to discover the proper techniques to be use in managing the classroom in order to achieve the instructional goals.
  5. Curriculum planners and educators as well as government and educational administrators need empirical data on the overall teaching to facilitate proper curricular policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.
  6. This study will serve as a reference materials to other researchers who may carried out research on this similar topic.

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. How does the use of demonstration technique affect the academic performance of students in Social Studies?
  2. How does the use of discussion technique affect the academic achievement of students in Economics?
  3. To what extent does the use of discovery technique affect the academic performance of students in Social Studies?

1.6   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were raised to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between demonstration technique and academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools.
  2. There is no significant difference between discussion technique and academic performance of students in Social Studies in secondary schools.
  3. There is no significant difference between discovery technique and academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools.
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1.7   Limitation of the Study

The following limitations were encountered in the course of this work:

  1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection.
  2. Time constraint- The researcher was simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

1.8   Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to three (3) teaching techniques namely demonstration, discussion and discovery and as it relates to the academic performance in Social Studies among secondary school students in Itu Local Government Area.

1.9   Definition of terms

The following terms are clearly defined in the study.

  1. Teaching Techniques: These are the difference teaching approaches or methods that assist the teachers in dissemination of knowledge to the learners with the sole objective of making lesson more clearer, interesting and stress free.
  2. Academic performance: This refers to the outcome or result a learners receive or accomplish at the end of the academic session or year through a test or examination.
  3. Demonstration technique: This refers to an activity in which teachers combine telling, showing and doing for the benefit of the students.
  4. Discovery technique: It is an approach to learning which emphasize student’s initiative and direction of their own learning experience.
  5. Discussion technique: This involves a group of people in a class who come together to exchange ideas, facts, opinions and expressions orally about a topic of mutual concern and interest under a guide.
  6. Students: This refers to a person who is studying or learning at a place of secondary school.

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Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies

Mr. Harrison

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