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Teachers Variables and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools

Teachers Variables and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools

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 The study examined “Teacher’s Variables and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area”. Two research questions were raised to guide the study. A survey design was employed in the study. The population of the study consisted of all the eighteen (18) Biology teachers in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.

A ten-itemed Questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Teachers’ Variables and Biology Teaching (QTVBT)” was the instrument for data collection. Data generated were analyzed using simple percentage. The result showed that teachers’ variables such as teachers’ qualification and gender affect teachers’ teaching effectiveness in Biology in Public Secondary Schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.

Based on the findings, it was recommended that in-service programmes, conferences, seminars and workshops should be organized for Biology teachers’ irrespective of their gender and qualifications.


1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions

1.5     Significance of the Study

1.6     Limitation of the Study

1.7     Definition of Terms


2.1     Who is a Teacher?

2.2     Variables of a Good Teacher

2.3     Teachers’ Qualification and Teaching Effectiveness in Biology

2.4     Teachers’ Gender and Teaching of Biology

2.5     Summary of Literature Review


3.1     Area of the Study

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Population of the Study

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection

3.6     Validation of Instrument

3.7     Administration of Instrument

3.8     Method of Data Analysis


 4.1     Data Analysis and Presentation

4.2     Discussion of Findings


 5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Suggestions for Further Studies



Teachers Variables and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools



1.1   Background of the Study

Teaching is an activity that has to do with an exhibition of certain variables of a person who is involved in it. The teacher occupies a central position upon which all other activities in the school revolves therefore, there are certain qualities expected of him to posses for effective execution of his functions.


These can be related to the work of Ozigi (2002) who opined that an important sign of long range breath of a nation is the spirit and quality of its teacher and had support from the work of Derama (2010) who said that education is the key that can be turned for national development. The teacher has to be properly educated before he/she can effectively transfer knowledge into the learners. He cannot offer what he does not have.

Specification on the variables of the teacher according to Betts (2013) covers two main aspects which are the qualification of the teacher and teachers’ gender. Betts (2013) opined that teacher’s with high academic qualification with deeper experience in their respective fields stand to teach more effectively than those with low academic qualification.

He further stressed that the more a teacher is trained and certified, the more qualified him/she will be. Several studies show a positive relationship between teachers preparation in subject matters they later teach and students academic performance, (Hammonal, (2002).

In Israel, according to a survey by Maagan (2007) elementary teachers with low qualification say grade 2-5 perform very minimal while those with higher qualification say N.C.E, degrees, masters, PHD tend to perform maximally during teaching and learning processes. In line with these, Aikem (2013) coined that teacher qualifications indeed have a positive impact on students learning.

On teachers Gender, Smith (2004) observed that the diminishing presence of male teachers was a global issue and that the proportion of men within teaching ranks was declining significantly. He cited many studies whose findings demonstrated the continual decline of male in the teaching profession. It has also been speculated in some quarters gender affected the performance of the students.

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According to Dee (2012) teachers, gender shapes communications between teacher and students and he also said that teachers act as a gender-specific role model, regardless of what he/she says or does during the teaching leaning processes. Some authorities cited by Smith (2004) had claimed that there was a strong relationship between the gender of the teacher and effective teaching.

Among those who had taken this stance where the catholic Education Office (2002) these had assured that boys, suffered a disadvantage in primary schools due to the paucity of male teachers and went further to conclude that gender contribute immensely to teachers teaching effectiveness to school subject.

Teachers Variables and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Teaching effectively especially science subjects such as Biology in senior secondary schools has been the concern of government, parents and educational stakeholders. The importance of education has a long lasting impact on one’s life. For instance, the acquisition of knowledge and skills and all other things are worthwhile which are transmitted to a person through formal and informal ways by teachers of which the future of the learner’s potential is harnessed. The teacher therefore, occupies a vital position in the overall training of the child.

Unfortunately, it is observed that teachers in Nigerian schools are willing to attend classes regularly, some do not have the basic qualification to enable them carryout the art of teaching effectively.

Ajbade (2010) noted that students complain that male teachers perform better than female teachers as this affects the teaching effectiveness among teachers in sciences. Similarly, Ayodele (2006) observed that teachers are not dedicated to their duties which have inadvertently affected the academic performance of students. He further concluded that teachers are education’s best resources and the assets it is also noted that there is lack of mastery of concepts among science teachers as complained by students.

It was based on these problems that the researcher was triggered to ask some questions “could teachers’ variables such as gender and the qualification affect teaching effectiveness of the teachers in Biology? Therefore, the quest to answer this question and many others motivated the researcher to carry out this work on the effect on teachers’ variable such as professional qualification and gender on the Biology in secondary school in Ikot Ekpene local government area.

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Teachers Variables and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools

1.3   Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of teachers variables on the teaching effectiveness among Biology teachers in Ikot Ekpene local government area. In specific terms the purposes of this study were:

  1. To find out whether teacher’s qualifications affect the teaching effectiveness among Biology teachers in Ikot Ekpene L.G.A.
  2. To find out whether teachers’ gender affect the teaching effectiveness among Biology teachers in Ikot Ekpene L.G.A.

1.4   Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study.

  1. Does teachers’ qualification influence the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene local government area?
  2. Does teachers’ gender influence the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene L.G.A.?

1.5   Significance of the study

The study is important as it would be beneficial to the following group of persons:

  1. Teachers: Teachers will adjust and put on those qualities that will positively affect teaching and learning process in secondary schools.
  2. Government: The government will be encouraged to fund teachers training programmes and scholarships to afford teachers the opportunity to enhance their teaching qualifications.

1.6   Limitation/Delimitation

This researcher would have extended this research to cover all the secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene local government area but due to time factor and financial constraints, could not cover beyond public schools in the area.

1.7   Definition of Terms

Teachers’ variables: Teachers’ variables in this context refers to Teachers qualification and gender.

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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