Project Materials

RURAL/URBAN MIGRATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN NASSARAWA EGGON LOCAL GOVERNMENT SINCE 1975 IN NASARAWA STATE

RURAL/URBAN MIGRATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN NASSARAWA EGGON LOCAL GOVERNMENT SINCE 1975 IN NASARAWA STATE

DISCOUNT Sales!!! GET COMPLETE  PROJECT MATERIAL FROM US TODAY AT A DISCOUNT PRICE OF 50% WHICH IS  ₦1500 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 08127963962

Abstract

The main purpose of the study is to examine the effect of Rural-Urban Migration on Agricultural Production in Nassarawa Eggon Local Government Since 1975 in Nasarawa State. Research questions were set to guide the study. This study employed the descriptive survey design. Descriptive survey was used to describe characteristics of a population being studied.

The population of this study comprised of all the residents in Nasarawa Egon Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. The population includes both male and female adults within the study area. A random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents from Nasarawa Egon Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. Respondents were chosen for this study from each ward. The principal instrument used for data collection for the research was a questionnaire to collect responses from the respondents.

The primary data were gathered through questionnaires and interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the collected data (measures of central tendency and measures of variations). Based on the questionnaires, data were analyzed using statistical software for social sciences. The replies were summed up, and the degree of similarity and difference was demonstrated using various statistics, in particular mean scores, standard deviations, percentages, and frequency distribution.

The findings of the study revealed significant effects of rural-to-urban migration on agricultural production in Nassarawa Eggon local government Area. Recommendations were made among others that, the Government should partner with the private sector to establish more agro-allied industries or agriculture processing industries in the rural areas in order to provide jobs for the teaming youths who are moving out of the rural areas. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Migration between rural and urban areas in Nigeria has had significant impact on both the rural and urban areas because of the number of people involved and the fact that most of these have been the young, often male, most productive members of the rural population. Rural-urban migration and agricultural development are complex issues that require the utmost attention when weighing the effects and impacts on other sectors. The phenomenon of rural-urban migration is grounded in uneven distribution and persistent inequality in the allocation of social and economic infrastructure and utilities such as pipe-borne water, good roads, electricity, health facilities, and industries, among others, in rural and urban communities.

The diverse perspectives offered by different authors shed light on the complex interplay between migration dynamics and agricultural production in the Nigerian context. Adepoju and Adepoju[1] provide a comprehensive overview of the historical development, causes, and consequences of rural-urban migration in Nigeria. They emphasize the push factors such as limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, and social amenities in rural areas, which compel individuals to seek better prospects in urban centers.

On the other hand, pull factors like employment opportunities, access to education, and improved living standards attract migrants to cities. Adepoju and Adepoju also underscore the adverse effects of migration on rural agriculture, including labor shortages and reduced productivity, due to the outflow of young, able-bodied individuals.

Contrary to the pessimistic view of rural-urban migration’s impact on agriculture, Ajibade and Olanrewaju[2] argue that demographic transitions associated with migration can offer opportunities for agricultural transformation and rural development. They contend that returning migrants, armed with new skills, knowledge, and capital acquired in urban areas, can contribute to agricultural innovation and diversification in rural communities. Additionally, remittances sent by urban migrants to their rural families can serve as a source of investment in agricultural activities, thereby stimulating rural economies.

Arowolo and Adepoju[3] provide a nuanced analysis of the relationship between rural-urban migration and agricultural productivity in Nigeria. They highlight the demographic shifts occurring in rural areas, with a disproportionate number of elderly individuals left behind to manage agricultural activities.

This demographic imbalance, coupled with the brain drain phenomenon, where skilled workers migrate to urban areas, poses challenges for agricultural development. However, Arowolo and Adepoju also recognize the potential for collaboration between urban and rural areas in fostering agricultural growth, suggesting policies that promote knowledge transfer, technology adoption, and value-added processing activities.

See also  Malnutrition and Academic Performance of Junior Secondary Three Students

Without reservation, rural-urban migration has been a significant and pervasive phenomenon with profound socio-economic implications, particularly in developing countries. Nassarawa Eggon Local Government Area in Nasarawa State serves as a microcosm of the complexities surrounding this migration pattern and its impact on agricultural production. Since 1975, the area has witnessed notable shifts in population dynamics, accompanied by changes in agricultural practices and land use patterns (Adesina[4]).

The migration from rural to urban areas in Nigeria has been fueled by various push and pull factors. These include limited economic opportunities, inadequate infrastructure, and the allure of better living standards in urban centers (Adepoju[5] ). Nassarawa Eggon has not been immune to these forces, experiencing a steady outflow of its rural population to urban centers such as Lafia, the state capital, and other major cities within and outside the state.

One of the primary drivers of rural-urban migration in Nassarawa Eggon is the perception of higher wages and better employment prospects in urban areas (Ogwumike et al.[6] ). This trend has led to a significant loss of labor from the agricultural sector, impacting both the quantity and quality of agricultural production in the region. As able-bodied individuals migrate to urban centers in search of non-agricultural employment opportunities, the agricultural workforce dwindles, posing challenges to farm productivity and food security in the local community.

Furthermore, the migration of skilled labor, particularly youth, exacerbates the agricultural labor shortage and hinders technological advancements in farming practices (Afolayan[7]). Traditional farming methods persist due to the lack of innovative input from the younger population, resulting in stagnant agricultural productivity and limited value addition in the sector.

RURAL/URBAN MIGRATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN NASSARAWA EGGON LOCAL GOVERNMENT SINCE 1975 IN NASARAWA STATE

The demographic shift caused by rural-urban migration also has implications for land use and agricultural sustainability in Nassarawa Eggon LGA (Ajibade & McBean[8] ). As rural dwellers abandon agricultural pursuits for urban livelihoods, there is a decline in the cultivation of arable land and the adoption of modern agricultural techniques. This trend threatens the long-term viability of agriculture as the backbone of the local economy and jeopardizes food security for the growing urban population.

Moreover, the influx of migrants into urban areas places strains on already limited resources and infrastructure, further widening the development gap between rural and urban areas (Mabogunje[9]). The resulting urban sprawl and unplanned settlements contribute to environmental degradation and exacerbate social inequalities, perpetuating a cycle of poverty and underdevelopment.

Without a doubt, the knowledge of the dynamics of rural-urban migration and its impact on agricultural production in Nassarawa Eggon LGA since 1975 is crucial for informing policy interventions aimed at promoting sustainable development and mitigating the adverse effects of migration. By examining historical trends, demographic patterns, and socio-economic factors driving migration, this study seeks to provide insights into the complex interplay between rural-urban dynamics and agricultural sustainability in the region.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The phenomenon of rural-urban migration and its implications for agricultural production in Nassarawa Eggon Local Government Area (LGA) in Nasarawa State, Nigeria, since 1975 presents a multifaceted and pressing problem. Over the past five decades, the area has experienced significant demographic shifts, characterized by a steady outflow of rural dwellers to urban centers, particularly Lafia, the state capital, and other major cities within and outside the state. This migration pattern has been driven by various push and pull factors, including limited economic opportunities, inadequate infrastructure, and the allure of better living standards in urban areas (Adesina[10]; Adepoju[11]).

As a consequence of rural-urban migration, Nassarawa Eggon LGA has witnessed a decline in its agricultural workforce, leading to challenges in farm productivity and food security. The loss of skilled labor, particularly youth, has hindered technological advancements and innovation in agricultural practices, perpetuating reliance on traditional farming methods (Ogwumike et al.[12]; Afolayan[13]). This has resulted in stagnant agricultural productivity and limited value addition in the sector.

See also  Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Furthermore, the demographic shift has impacted land use and agricultural sustainability in Nassarawa Eggon LGA. The abandonment of agricultural pursuits by rural migrants has led to a decline in the cultivation of arable land and the adoption of modern farming techniques. As a result, the long-term viability of agriculture as the primary economic activity in the region is threatened, jeopardizing food security for both rural and urban populations (Ajibade & McBean[14]).

Moreover, the influx of migrants into urban areas has placed strains on already limited resources and infrastructure, exacerbating social inequalities and environmental degradation (Mabogunje[15]). The lack of adequate housing, sanitation, and basic services in urban centers has contributed to the proliferation of informal settlements and the spread of diseases, further compounding the challenges faced by both rural and urban communities.

In light of these observations, the problem of rural-urban migration and its impact on agricultural production in Nassarawa Eggon LGA since 1975 can be succinctly summarized as follows:

  • Loss of agricultural workforce: The steady outflow of rural dwellers to urban areas has led to a decline in the agricultural workforce, resulting in challenges to farm productivity and food security.
  • Stagnant agricultural productivity: The migration of skilled labor has hindered technological advancements and innovation in agricultural practices, leading to stagnant productivity and limited value addition in the agricultural sector.
  • Threat to agricultural sustainability: The abandonment of agricultural pursuits by rural migrants has jeopardized the long-term viability of agriculture as the primary economic activity in the region, posing risks to food security for both rural and urban populations.
  • Strains on resources and infrastructure: The influx of migrants into urban areas has placed strains on already limited resources and infrastructure, exacerbating social inequalities and environmental degradation.

Hence, addressing these pressing issues requires a comprehensive understanding of the underlying drivers of rural-urban migration and the development of targeted policy interventions aimed at promoting sustainable agricultural practices, enhancing rural livelihoods, and bridging the gap between rural and urban areas. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of Rural-Urban Migration on Agricultural Production in Nassarawa Eggon Local Government Since 1975 in Nasarawa State.

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine the effect of Rural-Urban Migration on Agricultural Production in Nassarawa Eggon Local Government Since 1975 in Nasarawa State. Specifically, the study aimed to:

  1. describe the socio-economic characteristics of Nassarawa Eggon residents.
  2. identify the causes of rural-urban migration of Nassarawa Eggon residents Since 1975.
  3. determine the effect of rural-urban migration of Nassarawa Eggon residents on agricultural production in the area Since 1975.
  4. identify strategies to lower the rate of Nassarawa Eggon residents migration from rural to urban areas.

1.4     Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. How is the socio-economic characteristics of Nassarawa Eggon residents?
  2. What are the causes of rural-urban migration of Nassarawa Eggon residents Since 1975?
  3. What are the effect of rural-urban migration of Nassarawa Eggon residents on agricultural production in the area Since 1975?
  4. What are the strategies to lower the rate of Nassarawa Eggon residents migration from rural to urban areas?

1.5     Significance of the Study

The study will be of importance in the following ways:-

  • At the grassroots level, the study will empower local communities to proactively address the impacts of migration on agricultural livelihoods. Through participatory approaches and community-driven initiatives, residents can develop resilience strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of outmigration. This may involve diversifying income sources, adopting climate-smart agricultural practices, and fostering collaborative networks among farmers to enhance market access and value chain integration.
  • By shedding light on the challenges faced by rural communities in Nassarawa Eggon Local Government Area, this study can contribute to the design and implementation of community development initiatives. Empowering rural populations with the necessary skills, resources, and infrastructure can help mitigate the negative effects of migration and foster inclusive growth.
  • The findings will inform policy decisions at various levels of governance, providing actionable insights for sustainable rural development, agricultural productivity enhancement, and food security measures.
  • Through targeted interventions, the study will empower rural communities to address challenges posed by migration, fostering inclusive growth and socio-economic development.
  • Recommendations derived from the study will drive innovation in farming practices, facilitating value addition and market access for rural farmers, thereby bolstering agricultural resilience.
  • Understanding migration dynamics from this study will guide urban planning efforts; ensuring infrastructure development aligns with the needs of both incoming migrants and existing residents.
  • The study enriches scholarly understanding of migration’s impact on agricultural sustainability, laying the groundwork for further research and academic discourse in similar contexts.
  • The study’s insights resonate beyond local borders, informing international development agendas focused on sustainable agriculture, poverty reduction, and inclusive growth strategies.
See also  CONFLICT AND IDENTITY CRISIS IN ALEX AGEYI'S UNEXPECTED JOY AT DAWN

RURAL/URBAN MIGRATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN NASSARAWA EGGON LOCAL GOVERNMENT SINCE 1975 IN NASARAWA STATE

1.6    Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited in scope to rural-urban migration and agricultural production in Nassarawa Eggon Local Government since 1975 in Nasarawa State.

1.7    Limitation of the Study

Some of the challenges encountered while conducting the research include lack of sufficient funds and short duration assigned for the study.

1.8     Definitions of Terms

The following concepts are defined as they are applied in the study.

Migration: Migration is the movement of individuals or groups of people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location.

Rural-urban migration: Rural-urban migration refers to the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas in search of better employment opportunities, improved living standards, access to education and healthcare, and other amenities available in urban centers.

Agricultural production: Agricultural production refers to the process of cultivating crops, raising livestock, and harvesting natural resources for human use. It involves various activities such as planting, irrigation, fertilization, pest control, animal husbandry, and harvesting.

[1] Adepoju, Aderanti, and Adeola O. Adepoju. “Rural-urban migration in Nigeria: Historical development, causes, and consequences.” International Journal of Population Research (2019): 1-12.

[2] Ajibade, Ibukun, and Folasade O. Olanrewaju. “Demographic transition and agricultural productivity in Nigeria: Implications for rural development.” Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development 11, no. 9 (2020): 1-10.

[3] Arowolo, Olufemi O., and Adeola O. Adepoju. “Rural-urban migration and agricultural productivity in Nigeria: A review.” Journal of Rural and Community Development 14, no. 2 (2019): 107-122.

[4] Adesina, A. A. “Rural Development Strategies in Nigeria: Lessons from the Past.” African Rural and Urban Studies 9, no. 1 (2002): 63-76.

[5] Adesina, A. A. “Rural Development Strategies in Nigeria: Lessons from the Past.” African Rural and Urban Studies 9, no. 1 (2002): 63-76.

[6]Adesina, A. A. “Rural Development Strategies in Nigeria: Lessons from the Past.” African Rural and Urban Studies 9, no. 1 (2002): 63-76.

[7] Adesina, A. A. “Rural Development Strategies in Nigeria: Lessons from the Past.” African Rural and Urban Studies 9, no. 1 (2002): 63-76.

[8] Ajibade, I., and McBean, G. “Climate Change, Rural-Urban Migration and Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria.” African Geographical Review 37, no. 2 (2018): 191-204.

[9] Mabogunje, A. L. “The Role of Rural-Urban Migration in the Development of Urban Settlements in Nigeria.” Urbanization in Nigeria 42, no. 3 (2005): 56-72.

[10] Adesina, A. A. “Rural Development Strategies in Nigeria: Lessons from the Past.” African Rural and Urban Studies 9, no. 1 (2002): 63-76.

[11] Adepoju, A. “Migration in West Africa: An Overview of the Challenges.” International Migration 39, no. 5 (2001): 7-25.

[12] Ogwumike, F. O., Adebayo, A. F., and Adepoju, A. “Rural-Urban Migration and Development in Nigeria: Issues, Policies and Strategies.” The Journal of Rural and Community Development 9, no. 3 (2014): 1-16.

[13] Afolayan, A. A. “The Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on Agricultural Production in Nigeria.” Journal of Sustainable Development Studies 10, no. 1 (2017): 85-96.

[14] Ajibade, I., and McBean, G. “Climate Change, Rural-Urban Migration and Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria.” African Geographical Review 37, no. 2 (2018): 191-204.

[15] Mabogunje, A. L. “The Role of Rural-Urban Migration in the Development of Urban Settlements in Nigeria.” Urbanization in Nigeria 42, no. 3 (2005): 56-72.

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

Related Articles

Back to top button