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Learning Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Government in Secondary Schools

Learning Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Government in Secondary Schools

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Learning is a process in which the learner gains a new point of view explains the meaning and rebuilds it by him (Demirel, 2005). Açıkgoz (2000) states that, learning is a process that happens in the student’s mind and the teacher is responsible for providing necessary circumstances to facilitate it then the students should deal with the rest. If the students do not use the appropriate learning strategies then there will not be any learning.

Strategy can generally be explained as a pattern to achieve something or appliance of a plan that is developed to reach a goal. In Weinstein (1986) opinion, learning strategies are the behaviors and thoughts the student uses as he learns and obtained knowledge. In support of this view, (Brown 2007:19) define strategies as specific methods of approaching a problem or task, the models of operation for achieving a particular end and the planned designed for controlling and manipulating certain information.

Similarly, Demirel (2001) defines the learning strategy as all of the mental tactics that are used by an individual in case of special learning situation to facilitate obtaining knowledge and abilities. Learning strategies are defined as association of raw knowledge with what has already been learned and the behaviors that will help remembering this knowledge when it is needed (Weinstein, 1985).

Further asserts that, learning strategies and studying abilities are different concepts. When you say “studying abilities” it is more like arranging studying conditions (silence, illumination, heat, form of the chair) preparing for the examinations, concentrating, improving the memory. It could be said that learning strategies is the whole of all kinds of tactics that individuals use to learn and gain abilities in their own ways.

Learning Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Government in Secondary Schools

Learning strategies consist of the learners’ behaviors and thoughts that are expected to affect the choice of new knowledge to be taught, arrangement and integration of it (Buyukozturkvd 2004), Learning strategies are strategies that are heavily developed for dealing with various situations which are learned in social environment (Uimuek, 2004). In support of this view, Nisbett and Shucksmith (1986) divided learning strategies that are mentioned most in different sources into three as a) central,) macro,) micro strategies.

Studies offer many proofs that prove effective learning strategies affect learning (Mayer, 1988, Weinstein, Zimmerman and Palmer, 1988). Rotter (1975), mentions that in locus of control the individual perceives the positive or negative incident as a function of his own behavior and under his control but in external control the individual perceives the positive or negative incidents as out of his control (Strickland, 1989).

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In order to provide output and success that is expected from education it is needed to make the students compose their own learning strategies, carry on doing it, change and renew it. In this way, it is also important for teachers to determine learning strategies and control focus levels of teaching in enhancing the students’ understand. It is thought that it contributes to requirement of new knowledge when appropriate strategies are programmed especially in an educational system.

Learning Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Government in Secondary Schools

According to Chamot (2014), described learning strategies as the thoughts and actions that individuals are used to accomplish a set of goal. No daunt,   learning is a process in which the learner gains a new point of view explains the meaning and rebuilds it by him (Demirel, 2005).

While Açıkgoz (2000) states that, learning is a process that happens in the student’s mind and it is also the responsibility of the teacher to providing the necessary circumstances to facilitate it to the students while the students should deal with the rest. If the students do not use the appropriate learning strategies then there will not be any learning. Strategy can generally be explained as a pattern to achieve something or appliance of a plan that is developed to reach a goal. In Weinstein’s (1986) opinion learning strategy are the behaviors and thoughts the student uses as he learns which are also aimed to affect the student’s coding process.

1.2 statement of the problem

The teaching and learning of Government in Nigerian schools has series of challenges owing to the fact that the process involves the effort of both the teachers and the students. Thus, one of the major challenges of the educational system is lack of students’ participation in the teaching and learning process at the senior secondary level of education, which also affects the quality delivery of educational institutions.

This implies that the students occupy the central position in the teaching and learning process and learning cannot be forceful as such the students must be ready to learn before they can learn. However, due to the important position occupy by students in the teaching learning process, their approach or approaches to learning becomes necessary to be investigated upon.

Similarly, there is tremendous pressure on students to earn good grades because academic achievement is assumed to possess predictive value on the student’s future endeavor. The importance of academic achievement has raised several queries among educational researchers. In search for an answer to the queries, a number of attempts have been made by researchers to identify factors which influence academic achievement.

It is therefore based on the above importance that a question arises in mind of the researcher whether this learning strategies is related to academic achievement in Government or not? Little study has been done looking at the learning strategies of students at any level of the educational system especially in secondary schools in Udung Uko, much which is directed to mainly the senior secondary school students.

Since we live in the information age, this fact clearly makes new demand on the educational system, requiring radical changes on “what” and “how” students learn and why students are not doing as per expectations. It is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits or hinders one’s educational achievement. This is the premise which motivated the researcher to investigate learning strategies and students’ academic performance in Government in secondary schools in Udung Uko Local Government Area.

Learning Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Government in Secondary Schools

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to learning Strategies and students academic performance in Government in secondary schools in Udung Uko Local Government Area. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives:

1 Investigate the difference between mean academic achievement of students who have personal timetable and those who do not have personal timetable in Government in secondary schools in Udung Uko Local Government Area.

2 Investigate the difference between mean academic achievement of students who adopt individualized learning strategy and those who adopt group learning strategy in Government in secondary schools in Udung Uko Local Government Area.

1.4 significance of the study

The finding of this study will be useful in the following ways: To the students, the study is designed toward helping Students to improve in their learning strategies. To the teachers, it is believed that this study will help them to understand the different learning strategies adopted by students and therefore use teaching methods that will enhance effective learning irrespective of the students’ learning strategies.

To the counselors, it will help in yielding a good basis for students counseling on self-discipline and the right attitude towards studies. The policy makers and planners in education like Ministry of Education will have basis for organizing seminar for students on how to adopt and harness their learning strategies. As a data bank, it is envisaged that this research work will serve as a store of information for future researchers who may wish to research further into the same topic on related topic.

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1.5 Research Questions    

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What difference exists between academic performance of students who have personal timetable and those who doesn’t have personal timetable in Government?
  2. What difference exists between academic performance of students who adopt individualized learning strategy and those who adopt group adopt learning strategy in Government?

1.6 Hypothesis of the Study

The study tested the following hypothesis;

  1. There is no significant difference in academic performance of students who have personal timetable and those who doesn’t have personal timetable in Government.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic performance of students who adopt individualized learning strategy and those who adopt group adopt learning strategy in Government.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimitated to learning strategies (personal timetable and individualized learning) and students’ academic performance in Udung Uko Local Government Area. Similarly, only SS two students in secondary schools in Udung Uko 2017/2018 academic session were involved in this study.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the process of this research work, the researcher encounters various limitation these include; time given for the completion of the reach work. The researcher was also confronted with financial resources to help expand the dimension of the research work. In the same vein, the attitudes and of the respondents and teachers in some of the schools were reluctant in participating in the research work.

Learning Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Government in Secondary Schools

1.9 Definition of Significant Terms

The following terms were defined as used in the study:

Learning: Is a process in which the learner gains a new point of view explains the meaning and rebuilds it by himself

Strategies: Are specific methods of approaching a problem or task, the models of operation for achieving a particular end and the planned designed for controlling and manipulating certain information.

Students: Are particular group of people in whose aims and objective are to achieve specific areas in the field of academic.

Academic performance: This is the level of attainment of educational objectives which is measured by the grade or scores of students in examination and continuous assessment.

Learning Strategies and Students Academic Performance in Government in Secondary Schools

CHAPTER TWO

THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This section deals on the opinion of other researchers on the research work. Consequently, the study treats the following sub-headings:

  1. The concept of Learning Strategies
  2. Personal Timetable and Academic Performance in Government
  3. Individualized Learning Strategies and Academic Performance in Government
  4. Summary of the Literature Review

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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