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Influence of Teacher Training and Professional Development on the Integration and Utilization of Instructional Materials in Secondary School Classrooms

Influence of Teacher Training and Professional Development on the Integration and Utilization of Instructional Materials in Secondary School Classrooms

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Teacher training and professional development play a crucial role in the integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary school classrooms. Effective teacher training and professional development programs are essential for equipping educators with the knowledge and skills necessary to select, adapt, and effectively integrate instructional materials into their teaching practices. These programs also help teachers stay current with advancements in educational technology and pedagogy, enabling them to create dynamic and engaging learning environments for their students.

Teacher training programs provide educators with the opportunity to develop a deep understanding of how to effectively integrate instructional materials into their teaching. Through these programs, teachers learn about the various types of instructional materials available, such as textbooks, digital resources, manipulatives, and multimedia tools. They also gain insights into how to align these materials with curriculum standards and learning objectives, ensuring that the instructional materials used are relevant and effective in promoting student learning.

Professional development opportunities further support teachers in utilizing instructional materials to enhance their classroom instruction. These programs offer educators ongoing support and guidance in implementing best practices for integrating instructional materials into their teaching. They also provide opportunities for collaboration and peer learning, allowing teachers to share successful strategies for incorporating instructional materials into their lessons.

Furthermore, teacher training and professional development contribute to fostering a culture of continuous improvement within secondary school classrooms. Educators who participate in high-quality training and professional development are better equipped to critically evaluate instructional materials, adapt them to meet the diverse needs of their students, and assess their effectiveness in promoting student learning outcomes. This ongoing process of reflection and refinement ultimately leads to more effective integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary school classrooms.

teacher training and professional development are instrumental in shaping the integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary school classrooms. By providing educators with the knowledge, skills, and ongoing support necessary to effectively incorporate instructional materials into their teaching practices, these programs contribute to creating dynamic and impactful learning experiences for students

Effective teaching is the prime duty of a professional teacher. Changes in the teaching profession are without end due to the nature of the profession, which is ever-changing timelessly. The teacher is the most significant agent in the teaching-learning process. Teachers could either make or unmake the future of students. Professional development can be enhanced through faculty development activities such as instructional planning, instructional delivery, knowledge of the subject matter, rapport with the students and classroom management. There is a rise in teaching strategies in the twenty-first century through teamwork and innovation (Nairz-Wirth & Feldmann, 2019).

Improving teacher quality has become a vital thing to student fulfillment; teacher training and professionalism gained more prominence. Nowadays, instructors’ continuous professional development is broadly visible as crucial for enhancing teachers’ overall performance and effectiveness and enhancing dedication to their work. Teachers must always adapt to the current educational system changes to meet the students’ needs and demands for the global market.

For developing countries like the Nigeria, producing highly skilled and globally competitive graduates is a great challenge for all educators. The effectiveness of instruction is dependent on the caliber of teachers. In the book of Stronge (2018) some researchers define teacher effectiveness as to student achievement. As a teachers’ influence is far-reaching, it is challenging to determine what outcomes might demonstrate the effectiveness and how to measure results. Furthermore, many external variables affect each potential measure of effectiveness outside teachers’ control.

In totality, we can agree that effective teachers make an extraordinary and lasting impact on students’ lives. Teaching is a complex process that includes both an art and a science. Moreover Cayirdag (2017) emphasized that the art of teaching is based on teachers’ flexibility, creativity, and ability to go with their gut at the moment. The science of education is the teachers’ ability to structure and design a purposeful classroom experience and engage in curriculum design and needs. Pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge are at the backbone of the teaching-learning process.

Preparing students as lifelong learners have something to do with a deeper understanding of how pedagogy affects learning (Paniagua & Istance, 2018).

Training is a process to get the required skills for a particular subject. The training is a valuable practice for the teachers to enhance their teaching skills. A trained teacher has more skills and techniques to be applied for the better academic achievements of learners (Ulla, 2018). A teacher having better teaching skills can also produce students’ interest in a particular subject (Giovazolias, Syngelaki and Papastylianou, 2019).

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Many researchers including (Oliveira, Lopes and Spear-Swerling, 2019) stated the importance of teachers training. The teacher’s training provides the solutions of educational problems (Schütze, Rakoczy, Klieme, Besser and Leiss, 2017).

Without reservation, teacher training and professional development play a crucial role in equipping educators with the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively integrate instructional materials into their teaching practices. These programs provide teachers with opportunities to learn about new instructional materials, explore innovative teaching strategies, and develop their pedagogical content knowledge. By participating in these programs, teachers can enhance their understanding of how to select, adapt, and utilize instructional materials that align with curriculum goals and meet the diverse needs of their students.

In this modern age, the teacher’s training is an important requirement and essential component for all the educational activities including conducive learning environment, curriculum development and implementation and assessment (Zulfiqar, 2016). A trained and skilful teacher has more ability to teach the students and implement the various teaching methods successfully (Saira et al., 2021).

When teachers apply the various instructional materials, teaching methods and techniques according to the acquired skills then students achieved higher academic results and the interest of the student is also increased (Wuryaningsih, 2019).

Teacher professional development is a key to the accomplishment of any organization as the smooth and efficient running of any organization depends on how well employees are equipped with relevant skills to complete their task. The achievement or collapse of the organization depends on employee’s improvement and achievement. Therefore, organizations are investing enormous amount of funds on staff development.

The knowledge, ideas, skills and attitudes of the staff (teachers) must be developed through integrated and systematic way of attending conference. Anho and Akpokiniovo (2023) noted that “conferences are usually used to tackle a single or set of problems”. It may involve session of various types; such as lectures, panel discussion, workshop etc. Conferences consequently, have a very important place in the work place. Information has to be tailored to the unique demands of each firm in today’s dynamic workplace.

It is therefore imperative for every teacher to possess these teaching competencies that can be developed through professional activities such as the instructional planning skills (lesson planning skills), instructional skills (lesson delivery), knowledge of the subject area (mastery of the subject matter), rapport with the students (teacher-student relationship), and classroom management skills.

Experienced teachers possess professional and personal attributes that can motivate students to improve their school’s academic performance. According to Ajayi, Onibeju, and Olutayo (2020), good teachers who possess a mastery of content, suitable pedagogical qualification and a positive attitude towards teaching play a significant role in students’ educational attainment.

Furthermore, some research shows that professional development activities involve teachers’ deep reflection of clarifying the teacher’s values, mission, and beliefs (Adedoyin & Okere, 2017; Loughran & Hamilton, 2016; Okafor & Ezeoba, 2019). School reform is a complex process because it involves encouraging teachers to share a set of practices and beliefs, concepts, resources, and support (AKDEMİR, 2019; Kruse, Rakha, & Calderone, 2018).

When professional development is done well, it provides an opportunity for teachers to grow their knowledge and sharpen their skills, which can lead to better student outcomes. It’s a way for teachers to collaborate with their colleagues, and one avenue through which administrators can support their teachers.

Instructional materials are any device or object employed by teachers to facilitate the teaching process or brighten the classroom. According to Muhammad (2020), instructional materials are mainly aimed at exploring the full potentials of the students in terms of learning thereby easing the transfer of knowledge from the teachers to the students.

These include concrete and non-concrete materials, visuals and audio-visuals (kits, newspapers, videos, textbooks, pictures and projectors etc.), equipment, fixtures and any other material that can improve the teaching the teaching and learning process. The use of instructional materials makes teaching process easier and makes the learning process more realistic, practical, appealing and interesting. It also makes active participation of bother teachers and students and improves knowledge and skills acquisition, self-actualization and confidence (Muhammad, 2020).

Influence of Teacher Training and Professional Development on the Integration and Utilization of Instructional Materials in Secondary School Classrooms

Instructional materials are also referred to as learning support. They are gathering of both living and dead things as well as human and non-human materials improvised by the teacher or provided by the school which a teacher make use to bring life to the class and achieve the stated teaching objectives in a teaching and learning situation.

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Print (textbooks, pamphlets, handouts, study guides, and manuals), audio (cassettes, microphones, and podcasts), visual (charts, actual objects, photographs, and transparencies), audiovisual (slides, tapes, films, filmstrips, television, video, and multi-media), and electronic interactive (computers, graphing calculators, tablet and other devices with screens) are some examples.

The development and use of instructional materials have advantages and disadvantages. One benefit is that it promotes student academic performance and learning (Adalikwu & Iorkpilgh, 2013; Prado, 2018). Disadvantages in the use of instructional materials were found in the study of Ominini and Jennifer (2019).

Similarly, Wahyuningsih, Wahyono, and Nugroho (2021) identified three main problems that teachers face in developing learning resources, the technical ability to use tools and devices to create digital learning resources, the strategy of organizing learning materials to be applied to learning resources; and the lack of skills in managing learning materials to be applied to digital learning resources.

In addition, some instructional materials are not effectively used due to a large number of learners per class, a lack of enough learning centers, and learners’ confidence, a language barrier, teachers’ negative attitudes, a lack of professional skills and domestic violence (Onditi, 2018) lack of funds for the purchase of instructional materials and time (Dhakal, 2017).

Also, teachers’ perceptions of teachers’ guides, reference books, students’ textbooks and reference books are inadequate (Dhakal, 2017). This study aimed to investigate the influence of teacher training and professional development on the integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary school classrooms.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

over the years, most teachers are hardly given the opportunity to attend professional training which will make them to acquaint themselves with the latest development in the field of education. Activities such as In-Service-Training, conferences, seminars, teachers experience can help improve teachers’ professional competences and solve other issue related to the teaching and learning process as well as integration and utilization of instructional materials.

Instructional materials are valuable assets to teachers and learners, especially in this era of paradigm shift with emphasis on the learner. It is one thing to produce and another to judiciously utilize instructional materials to titillate classroom pedagogy. In spite of the fact that most of these materials are strewn around the environment, they are, for most times, abandoned or underutilized.

Perhaps, these materials are allowed to lie fallow because most teachers do not have the requisite skills to source for or fabricate them into functional tools for instructional delivery. Instances abound where materials supplied to schools are stockpiled in rooms, under lock and key, for years or at the mercy of cobwebs and rodents.

Perhaps, some these materials are allowed to fallow or lie latent because most teachers lack the technical knowhow to produce and/or manipulate them. It is, however, contemplated that if regular workshops and exhibitions are mounted for all shades of teachers, under the tutelage of experts, supervisors or professionals on instructional material production and utilization in teaching and learning process, it will motivate teachers’ interest to produce and use these materials through cross fertilization of ideas.

Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of teacher training and professional development on the integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary school classrooms.

Influence of Teacher Training and Professional Development on the Integration and Utilization of Instructional Materials in Secondary School Classrooms

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine influence of teacher training and professional development on the integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, this study sought to examine the:

  1. extent teacher In-Service-Training influence integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms in Uyo Local Government Area.
  2. extent workshops and seminars influence integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms in Uyo Local Government Area.
  3. extent conferences influence integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms in Uyo Local Government Area.
  4. extent teacher experience influence integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms in Uyo Local Government Area.

1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions guided this study:

  1. To what extent does teacher’s in-service training influence integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms in Uyo Local Government Area?
  2. To what extent does workshops and seminars influence integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms in Uyo Local Government Area?
  3. To what extent does conferences influence integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms in Uyo Local Government Area?
  4. To what extent does teacher experience influence integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms in Uyo Local Government Area?
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1.5       Research Hypotheses

To guide the study, the following null hypotheses were formulated:

  1. There is no significant of influence of teacher’s in-service training on integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms.
  2. There is no significant of influence of workshops and seminars on integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms.
  3. There is no significant of influence of conferences on integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms.
  4. There is no significant of influence of teacher experience on integration and utilization of instructional materials in secondary schools classrooms.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be of immense benefit to the government, teachers, administrators, policy makers, curriculum planners and Non-governmental organizations.

  1. The findings of this study will help the Government on the need to provide regular and adequate supervision to ensure that workshop and seminars are caused out for training and retraining of teachers.
  2. The outcome of this study would be beneficial to the government in planning and decision making. It would help in policy formulation, implementation, evaluation and reformation.
  3. The schools administrators on the need to established instructional centres or resource centered in school where trained instructional material personal should be employed.
  4. Through the findings of the study, the teachers would seek professional development in the use of the instructional materials in their learning.
  5. The findings of the study would help the students the benefit from the effective utilization of the instructional materials that will follow from the adoption of the strategies identified from the study while the teachers would from the findings adopt effective strategies for utilizing the instructional materials in their teaching, the pupils would understand the lesson better and also use the instructional materials well during their private learning and peer tutoring.
  6. The study will be of benefit to the ministry of education on the need of school inspectors in various schools to ensure that appropriate instructional materials are used in teaching and learning.
  7. Serves as a reference material to other researchers in the future and as well show cases the researcher contribution to the development in education in the states as well as the nation at large.

1.7       Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher came across so many impediments

 Firstly, there was difficult in getting facts and materials in carrying out this work, hence a lot of time was taken to get information from journals and internet as it was conducted alongside other academic exercises such as assignment and classes.

Secondly, the financial involvement in carrying out this work was indeed demanding. A lot of money was spent in typing and transportation use in collection of data to carry out the study.

1.8       Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited in scope to all the teachers in all the public secondary schools in Uyo Local government Area. The study was also delimited in scope the following sub-variables: in-service training, workshops and seminars, conferences and teachers experience.

1.9       Definition of Terms

The following concepts are defined as they are applied in the study.

Influence: Refers to positive or negative effect.

Teacher: Is a person who teaches or instructs, especially as a professional instructor.

Teacher training: Teacher training may be defined as preparation for professional practice usually through formal courses at colleges or universities. It usually results in some kind of recognized accreditation, granting successful candidates a certificate

Professional development: Professional development is defined as activities that develop an individual’s skills, knowledge, expertise and other characteristics as a teacher. Professional development can also be refer to any kind of ongoing learning opportunity for teachers and other education personnel.

Workshop: Workshop is a short-term academic event, where a small group of people meet to get acquainted and discuss new concepts, skills or new practices.

In-service training: An in-service training is a professional training or staff development effort, where professionals are trained and discuss their work with others in their peer group

Utilization: This refers to the act of using the available object for class instruction.

Instructional materials: Instructional materials are defined as any device or object employed by teachers to facilitate the teaching process or brighten the classroom.

Mr. Harrison

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