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The Influence of School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Biology in Secondary Schools

The Influence of School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Biology in Secondary Schools

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 ABSTRACT

 This study examined school variables and student academic performance in Biology in secondary school in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Quasi experimental research design was employed for the study.

A sample size of one hundred and thirty (130) students were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was used as instrument for data collection. The data collection was subjected to statistical analysis using T-test.

The result revealed that the students taught in a small class size performed significantly better than their counterparts taught in a large class this was evident in calculated t-value of 13.22 against a critical t-value of 1.99.

Equally, students from school with adequate facilities performed significantly better than their counterparts from school without facilities in Biology Achievement Test, as indicate in a calculated t-value of 3.14 against a critical t-value of 2.00.

Hence, the null hypotheses were rejected at .05 level of significance. It was then recommended that the recommended teacher – students’ ratio of 1:25 should be maintained in schools so as to facilitate the teaching-learning process and bring about better performance in examination. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

 In Nigeria and the world at large, education is seen as a pivot for human changes and development. Hence, education is a tool for global revolutionary changes which has helped to improve all facets of human endeavours. For education to thrive, there are key variables that need to be considered. These variables include class size, school facilities, school Location and teacher’s quality.

According to Ajayi, (2001, as cited in Ukpong, 2011) these variables are so important that they can affect students’ academic performance in school.

However, for many years now, educationists and researchers have debated on which school variables influence students performance. As policy makers become more involved in school reforms, this question takes on new dimension since their initiatives rely on presumed relationship between various education related factors and learning out-come.

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Ajayi, (2001, as cited in Ukpong, 2011) suggested that school bring little influence to bear upon a child’s performance that is dependent on his background and general social context. Ajayi noted that school variable such as availability of school facilities, class size, libraries, laboratories and Location remain an important area that school be studied and well managed to enhance student’s academic performance.

According to Otu (2002, as cited in Ukpong, 2011) overcrowded class rooms lead to mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. Hence, to achieve a qualitative and improved academic performance of students in Biology school variables must be thoroughly considered. Therefore, this work seeks to determine whether large and small class size and school facilities influence students’ academic performance in Biology in secondary school in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

Studies have shown that the physical environment, class overcrowding and lack of teaching learning facilities in the school are variables that affect students’ performance (Moffat, 2004). Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact on the quality of teaching and instruction delivery.

The Influence of School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Biology in Secondary Schools

According to Inyang (2008, as cited in Ukpong, 2011) school is an environment which constitutes all that surrounds the learners in the course of learning. The environment embraces such provisions as good roads, electricity, well equipped laboratory, library facilities, well ventilated class room and use of relevant instructional materials among others.

Consequently, the issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the Government, parents, teachers and even students themselves. The equality of education does not only depend on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective co-ordination of the school variables.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

In recent times, the performance of students in both internal and external examinations have been a thing of concern to both parents, teachers and Government as the poor performance is always very glaring. Worried by some yearly reports, it is observed that poor academic performance of secondary school students especially in external examinations like West African senior school certificate Examination (WASSCE).

unified tertiary matriculation Examination (UTME) among others are on the increase despite all guidance programmes and cancelling strategies mounted in schools on areas such as teachers teaching methods, family background, instructional materials, school Location among others to improve students’ academic performance, students’ performance is still on the decline (Abang, 2008).

However, it is on the expectation that apart from the fore mentioned factors, school variables like class size and school facilities could also exert influence on students’ academic performance in school there by resulting in to poor performance.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of school variables on students’ academic performance in Biology in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.  Specifically the study sought to:

  1. Examine the academic performance of students class sizes in Biology
  2. Compare the academic performance of students in Biology in schools with adequate facilities and school without adequate facilities.

1.4   Significance of the Study

The study shall be significant in the following ways:

  1. It will help teachers to gain insight in to the quality and quantity of learning material that could be used in a class with specified number of learners.
  2. It will inform the government and educators the need to accord priority to the provision of facilities in school to enhance teaching and learning.
  3. The study will also serve as source of inference materials to those who will undertake a study of this nature in the years ahead.

 However, it is on the expectation that through this study, Government will see the need to provide schools with good teaching and learning facilities to help in accomplishing the goals of secondary education.

Accordingly, there will be adequate expansion in school basic infrastructure to accommodate the ever increasing students’ enrolment in schools. Equally, students will be encouraged to develop a positive reading culture that will enhance their academic performance.

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 Therefore, a research of this nature should be carried out in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

The Influence of School Variables and Students Academic Performance in Biology in Secondary Schools

1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions were raised in line with the purpose of the study

  1. What difference exists in the academic performance of student in small and large class size in Biology?
  2. What difference exists in the academic performance of students in Biology from schools with adequate facilities and schools adequate facilities?

1.6   Research Hypotheses

The understated hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students in small and large class size in Biology
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of Biology students from schools with adequate facilities and schools without adequate facilities.

1.7   Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimitated to school variables and students academic performance in Biology in secondary in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Analysis was on senior secondary two (ss2) students because they are matured to read and understand the achievement test questions

1.8   Definition of Terms

The following terms used in the study were defined by the research as follows:

School variables: these are variables like class size, school facilities such as well equipped laboratory and library, Location of school etc. which are capable of influencing students’ academic performance in school.

Class size: this refers to the total number of students in a class at a given time under the supervision of a single teacher.

School facilities: these  are well equipped laboratory, library conducive classroom play ground etc. which is enable a teacher to achieve a level of instructional effectiveness that exceeds what is possible when they are not provided.

Academic performance: this is the performance of students on taught lessons as determined by test or examination.

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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