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Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

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ABSTRACT

The microbiological assessment of garri sold in two different markets in Uyo metropolis was carried out and it was discovered that the red garri had more microbial loads 0.6 x103 (m) than white garri. Due to the exposure of garri to the environment, there’s every tendency that new microorganisms were introduced into the already prepared garri.

Therefore to have a permissible level of microorganisms in garri, hazard analysed analytical control point is recommended to be put in use and the storage condition of the garri should not be in a moist environment. Microscopic technique was used in the analysis. Some biochemical test were conducted to isolate, identify and characterize the organisms via catalase, indoles, and gram staining.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

Garri is a staple food eaten mostly by the Mid-Western part of Nigeria as a Red-Garri and White garri. While the western part eats it as Ijebu Garri. There are several factors which influence the quality of garri processing conditions and storage conditions.

Garri is a very popular cassava product in Uyo city and across Nigeria due to its wide economic, social and geographical preference but there is little knowledge about the Health hazards such as food poisoning that could result from mishandling, unsatisfactory sterilization of products and packages, storage and distribution of garri. Much work has not been carried out locally to isolate pathogenic organisms that could cause damages to consumer’s health.

Therefore effort was put into analyzing smaller-scale local manufactured products, where it is considered that hygienic conditions may not be of highest priority. The general processing method of garri has been found to be generally unhygienically processed and may cause serious health/environmental hazard that after fermentation of the cassava product (garri), a change in odour was observed. This could be caused by the fermentation process involved, yielding unwanted organisms, therefore causing smell to the final product (Obidina et al 2009)

Therefore due to other previous research and findings, garri is known to have high microbial content, which may be detrimental to human health.

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Cassava rank fourth in the list of food crop in developing countries after rice, wheat and maize (Milingi et al 1992). Diverse cassava processing technique have been developed in different part of the world, resulting in a wide range variety of food product for example, fermented cassava based food product from African continent include garri and fermented and non-fermented flour used to produce meals such as Fufu (Nigeria) (Norrise, et al 1981). The shelf life of cassava based crops depend mostly on the initial microbial load, pH, moisture content, and the packaging method (Sanni,1996).

Two throwbacks of the staple food cassava are its potential toxicity and perishability during storage. Once harvested the tuber deteriotes rapidly and may become unsuitable for consumption within 4 days. Although cassava is widely consumed and usually with problems, toxic effect from cyanide during insufficient processing have been reported (Essers, et al 1995). Large amount of cassava starch are broken down into sugar during fermentation to produce beer or fuel alcohol.

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) is an important food in the tropics, it has two major deficiencies which are carried over into those food made from it; it contain cyanogenic glycoside and its low content of protein and amino acid (Okafor et al 1999). The fufu also called Akpu in Igbo is a meal of soaked fermented cassava roots widely consumed particularly in the southeastern part of the country (Iwuoha and Eke,1996; Sobowale et al 2007.

Cassava plants are of two varieties namely;  a sweet cassava(Manihot Tutilisima) also known as the Oko-yawo variety and the bitter cassava (Manihot Palmata). Both varieties are known to contain cynogenic glycosides. Cassava root are highly perishable and cannot be kept in fresh condition for more than few days without deterioration in quality.

In order to extend the shelf life of root, cassava is processed into dried product to meet the local needs, taste and nutrition for use and storage. As a result of this, cassava roots can be produced into various products such as fufu, tapioca, chips, elubo and garri (Bokanga, 2001).

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In Nigeria, garri produced are of different types depending on the state and geographical region where it is produced. Garri commonly produced in Akwa Ibom state are Bendel Okrikang and Atam Garri. Bendel Garri is commonly produced by the Delta and Edo people and it is consumed in the eastern part of Nigeria.

Okrikang garri is commonly produced and consumed in Akwa Ibom State while Atam garri is commonly produced in Cross River State and is consumed in both Akwa Ibom State and Cross rives state.

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

1.2  Statement of the Problems

The bacteriological load of garri which have caused different health havoc has prompted the evaluation of microorganism found on garri in Uyo city market in order to ascertain through characterization, isolation and identification the microorganism solely responsible for the havoc rendered on human life via the consumption of garri and to also enhance and ensure that the activities of these microorganisms are brought to a lower standard of operation.

1.3   Aim/Objective of the Study

This study has been undertaken:

  1. To access the bacteriological load of garri purchased from different market in Afaha Nsit.
  2. To isolate the different microbes using their morphological characteristics on Nutrient agar plate.

1.4   Research Questions

(i)        What is the bacteriological load of garri?

(ii)       How do we isolate the different microbes on garri?

1.5   Significance of the Study

This project work tends to help garri vendors and consumers realize the health effect posed on their life if the garri being consumed is wrongly processed or rather allowed to be contaminated during processing. Also, it tends to draw the mind of the consumer to the fact that cyanide content in garri has a health risks and needs to be properly taken care of while processing.

1.6  Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is to ascertain the level of microbes on garri through;

            (i)        Characterization

            (ii)       Isolation and

            (iii)     Identification.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

During the course of this project work, below are the limitations which posed to be a challenge and to some extent a barrier.   

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(i)        Financial Constraint

(ii)       Limited Time

1.8  Operational Definition of Terms

            Garri: Cassava flaky product and African staple

            Nutrient: A substance that is essential for life growth.

Mordant: A substance typically an inorganic oxide that combines with a dye or stain and thereby fixed it in a material. A mordant is classically defined as an ion that binds a chemical dye and holds it down, such that the dye remains stuck on the organism

Staple: A staple food or simply a staple is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrient as well.

Granular: Resembling or consisting of small grains or particle.

Flake: A small, flat, very thin piece of something, typically one which has broken away or been peeled off from a large piece

Gelatinize: The process of converting into a jelly form.

Grit: A hard sharp granule.

Gluten: A tenacious elastic protein substance especially of wheat flour that gives cohesiveness to dough.

Celiac Disease: A chronic hereditary intestinal disorder in which an inability to absorb the gliadin portion of gluten results in the gliadin triggering an immune response that damages the intestinal mucosa.

Food: A material consisting essentially of protein, carbohydrate and fat used in the body of an organism to sustain growth, repair body tissues, vital processes and to furnish energy.

Emulsify: To convert two or more immiscible liquids into a mixture.

Smear: A viscous or sticky substance.

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Examination of Microorganism on Garri in Uyo Market

Mr. Harrison

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