PLAYWAY METHOD AND LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT OF ECCE PUPILS
1.1 Background to the Study
TeachingTeaching, according to Oladipo and Ayeni (2010) involves bringing about or at least facilitating desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners (Brown, 2017).
It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn. Instruction is the transmission to the learner and the acquisition by him on specific skills, information, knowledge or other established data. The mode of instruction or teaching applied in achieving these objectives is referred to as method.
Methodology therefore, refers to the processes and techniques a teacher of either nursery or primary education uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives. Research evidence shows that the major problem of the teachers in the nursery and primary schools is the method to be adopted in imparting knowledge to the pupils. To this assertion Adepoju (2016) posited that primary school pupils encountered some difficulties at the secondary level of education when they are instructed using verbal approach like the lecture method and these challenges include poor language development, poor communication skills development and poor academic performance.
This is also confirmed in the study carried out in Nigeria by Busari (2011), the study revealed that the method presently employed in teaching, in most of our public primary schools is inadequate or not effective. It is of a necessity that a skillful teacher therefore needs to be conversant with various teaching strategies which may be applied to subjects at different class situations.
However, many methods of teaching exist in the teaching/learning process which is meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. Among these methods, play-way seems to be crucial for the teachers at the primary school level as the children engage in play activities than when they are expose to verbal discussion.Play-way method of teaching is an inductive method where teaching occurs gradually with fun and plays which also nourishes the language proficiency effortlessly. It involves the use of rhymes and poems in passing out information to the pupils. Play-way method is the practical use of rhymes and poems in explaining lesson contents to the pupils (Isang, 2015).
Play-way is often used when learners have a hard time connecting theories to actual practice or when they are unable to understand application of theories and may develop lack of interest towards the lesson.
Teachers should not only introduce rhymes and fun games for specific learning concepts within the classroom, they also need to write notes for the pupils to copy into their exercise books on the concepts they present using play.
Although the literature is limited, studies show that the effects of play-way method in classroom teaching includes a change of perspective in relating to pupils, more reflection in the teachers own classroom strategies, and more personal responsibility for pupils’ learning.However, the success in the use of any method differs as a result of an intelligent analysis of the objectives, the pupils in class, the curriculum content or the type of subject matter.
Also, the impact of any teaching method is not only limited to the conditions surrounding the teaching but also the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular method in a particular situation should not be left out. Moreover, lecture method is not applicable in teaching the foundational classes. Also, Ckenzie, (2010) argues that the objectives of the teacher must be considered before the selection of any method.
This implies that what the teacher intends to achieve at the end of the lesson should be in line with the selected method. As a result of this factor, it is advisable that a skillful teacher in nursery and primary level of education should consider the factor when he/she needed to achieve his/her stated objectives. It is however, sustained that various methods of teaching exist but there is a distinctive difference between them.
There are methods used in higher education which virtually cannot be use in the lower level of education which nursery and primary education exist. Nursery and primary education therefore, gives room for any method which will help in facilitating the teaching and learning of a teacher and also make the stated objectives achievable.
As a result of this, the study on the comparative study of some play-way and lecture teaching methods and its effects on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools worth pursuing. This therefore formed the background for the current research to investigate on playway method and learning achievement of Ecce pupils in UyoLocal Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Education sector in Nigeria has series of challenges. The important area of primary school challenge is inability to select appropriate instructional strategy by teachers in schools.
Improving quality in education requires adequate competent teachers, appropriate facilities, materials and methods which are lacking; these form part of the problems in the study. Thus, one the major challenge of educational system is the teachers’ knowledge of selecting appropriate instructional strategy for teaching primary school pupils, which also affect the quality delivery of educational institutions, teacher’s training and production. The inability to select appropriate instructional method in primary schools is a problem to pupils’ learning, they do not learn at the same space.
This study therefore, is geared towards finding out if the use of play-way method could bring a solution to the problem of poor ECCE pupils’ academic achievement. Hence, this study is to examine playway method and learning achievement of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) pupils in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study sought to investigate the utilization of playway method and learning achievement of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) pupils in Uyo Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:
i. Investigate the difference in academic performance of pupils taught English Language using play-way method and those taught using lecture method.
ii. Investigate the difference in male and female pupils’ academic performance when taught using play-way method.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will be significant in the following ways:
To teachers: it will enhance inventive thinking, ingenuity and resourcefulness among primary school teachers as they will have to think of selecting relevant instructional technique for their lesson.
To pupils: the findings of this study will equip them with the knowledge of the effect of participating during lesson presentation by the teachers in class.
To Curriculum designers: findings of this study will help them in developing curricular for Nigerian teachers of tomorrow will be equipped with knowledge on what type of method to use for instruction in primary schools.
To government: the study will provide them with sound knowledge of organizing seminars to teachers on the instructional methods selection and utilization in teaching of primary school pupils.
To future researchers: they will use the outcome of the research as reference materials on related topics.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
i. There is no significant difference in academic performance of pupils taught using play-way method and those taught using lecture method in English Language.
ii There is no significant difference in the academic performance between male and female pupils taught using play-way method in English Language.