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Classroom Supervision and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools

Classroom Supervision and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools

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Abstract

This study was to examine classroom supervision and pupils’ academic performance in Social Studies in Primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study which state that; pupils  in classrooms where they are supervised using laissez-faire supervisory technique do not differ from their counterpart supervised with autocratic approach in their academic performance in Social Studies.

pupils  in classroom where they are supervised democratically do not differ significantly from their counterpart who are supervised autocratically in their academic performance in Social Studies pupils  in classroom where they are supervised democratically do not differ significantly from their counterpart who are supervised using lasses-faire in their academic performance in Social Studies .

The review of related literature was carried out to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for this study were all the Primary 5 pupils and teachers in the study area, while a sample size of one hundred and fifty (150) pupils and eight (8) teachers were selected from four schools using simple random sampling technique.

Two instruments were adopted for the study; one was a questionnaire while the other was Social Studies s Achievement Test. The data collected were analyzed using independent t-test statistical tool. The result revealed that democratic supervision technique and autocratic supervision have positive effect on the academic performance of pupils, while Laissez-faire supervision has negative effect on the academic performance of pupils.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

Classroom supervision could be seen as the efficient and proper management of the available classroom resources (human and materials) in order to provide a conducive learning environment to the learners. It could also be described as the systematic process carried out by a teacher in the classroom to ensure the participation of pupils in the classroom activities (Glentin, 2001). Classroom supervision according to Acheson & Gall (2007) are measures and techniques carried out by teachers to ensure mastery of educational objectives.

Classroom supervision has been an important instrument in the educational system for smooth running of the school programs. It can be seen as the supervisor styles adopted by school supervisors, principals, and the teachers. These supervisory styles could be classified into three which are, autocratic supervisory technique, democratic supervisory technique and laissez-faire supervisory technique. These technique of classroom supervision can significantly influence pupil’s academic performance either positively or negatively.

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Classroom supervision could also be seen the leadership styles adopted by a teacher in order to direct and control large group of pupils, or the process of influencing the action, beliefs, behaviour and feeling of pupils in the classroom. According to fisher (2011), supervision includes all efforts of the school officials directed to provide leadership to the teachers and other educational workers in the improvement of instruction.

According to Ntuk (2014) autocratic supervisory technique or leadership technique is a one man’s orchestra, that is the teacher or the leader always gives order to be obeyed. He further opined that in this technique of supervision, there is little or no participation by the pupils , the teacher decide for all on what is to be done, be dictates the techniques to be used and he disregards other people’s feelings and problems. This supervisory technique could be sub-divided into three which include strict autocratic, benevolent autocratic and baby autocratic.

Democratic supervisory technique combined both the autocratic and the laissez-faire decision. This type of classroom supervisory technique allows for participation of the learners and has no direction.

This technique according to Ntuk (2014) encourages self-expression, creativity and group interaction. Moreover, a democratic leader is the one who group interaction. Moreover, a democratic leader is the one who persuades and then considers the feelings of other in decision making. Amos (2016) reported that democratic classroom supervision has positive influence on the academic achievement of pupils.

Laissez-faire classroom supervisory technique is a technique which pupils are always given too much freedom few rules are usually given and there is no hierarchy of authority and regulation. According to Hansome (2015), when pupils are given to much freedom, they behave as they like and some pupils may not take studies serious. As the result, their academic achievement are affected negatively.

The roles of classroom supervision in the academic achievement of pupils cannot be over emphasized. Abraham (2014) opined that for smooth running of the school activities to take place, the teachers, the school administrators and the principals must consider supervision as an important factor. Thus, this the reason that the researcher considered it necessary to examine classroom supervision and pupils academic performance.

Classroom Supervision and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools

  • Statement of the Problem

Social Studies is an important subject studied in secondary school system. The knowledge of Social Studies help in every day transaction around the world. But the academic achievement of pupils  in this important subject has been observed to be below the expectation of the general public the poor academic achievement of pupils  in Social Studies  has been a source of worried to the educational stake-holders, teachers and including the parents.

The source of this poor academic achievement of pupils  of has been attributed to so many factors such as school, home, pupils  factors poor teaching method, lack of instructional aids and poor classroom supervisory techniques due to this problems, it motivated the research to examine classroom supervision and pupils academic performance.

  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to:

  1. Determine how autocratic classroom supervision affects pupils’ academic performance in Social Studies .
  2. To assess the influence of Democratic classroom supervision on pupils’ academic performance in Social Studies .
  3. To examine how laissez-faire classroom supervision affects pupils Academic performance in Social Studies .
    • Research Questions

They following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. To what extent do autocratic classroom supervision affects pupils’ academic performance in Social Studies .
  2. How does laissez-faire classroom supervision influence pupils’ academic performance in Social Studies ?
  3. How does laissez-faire classroom supervision influence pupils’ academic performance in Social Studies?
    • Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. Pupils in classrooms where they are supervised using laissez-faire supervisory technique do not differ from their counterpart supervised with autocratic approach in their academic performance in Social Studies .
  2. Pupils in classroom where they are supervised democratically do not differ significantly from their counterpart who are supervised autocratically in their academic performance in Social Studies .
  • Pupils in classroom where they are supervised democratically do not differ significantly from their counterpart who are supervised using lasses-faire in their academic performance in Social Studies .
    • Significance of the Study
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It is hopeful that the findings of this study will be of great benefits to the teachers, education stake-holders, pupils  and other researchers in the following ways, the teachers will benefit from this study in that they will be aware of suitable classroom supervision that enhance pupils  academic achievement.

To the educational stake-holders, they will adopt appropriate supervisory technique and also see the need of supervising the work of the teachers. To the pupils, they will be improves in their academic performance when the teacher adopt appropriate supervisory styles. Also, the findings of this study will served as a reference points to other researchers.

  • Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited to classroom supervision and pupils’ academic achievement in Social Studies in Primary schools in Ibiono Ibom L.G.A. The population of this study are all the Primary 5 pupils and Social Studies teacher in the study area. The sub-variables considered are autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire classroom supervision.

  • Limitation of the Study

The follows limitation will be confronted by the researcher

  1. Time Factor: The period of time given for the completion of the study is enough.
  2. Financial Constraint: Due to high cost of transportation to visit the selected schools, finance was a big problem.
  3. Some schools selected were located in the rural area, so bad road network was another problem.

 Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined for better understanding of this study.

  1. Classroom Supervision: This refers to the efficient and proper management of the available resources in the classroom.
  2. Autocratic Classroom Supervision: This refers to the technique of classroom supervision where of pupils given utile or no participation in the classroom activities.
  3. Democratic Classroom Supervision: This is a technique use in classroom supervision where by learners are given an opportunity to participate in classroom activities.
  4. Laissez-faire Classroom Supervision: This is a technique where student are given too much freedom.
  5. Academic Achievement: This refers to the grade of pupils obtained in test or examination.

Mr. Harrison

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