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Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine realia usage and teaching of Biology in Secondary School in Ini L.G.A. Two research questions were postulated to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for this study consists of all the twenty four (24) Biology teachers in all the eight public secondary schools in the study area. Sample size of the study was all the twenty four (24) Biology teachers drawn from all the eight public secondary schools in the study area using purposive sampling technique.

The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using percentage statistical method. The result revealed that Realia are not utilized to a large extent in the teaching of Biology. It was also revealed that Realia usage has positive impact on the teaching of Biology among secondary schools Biology teachers. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended by the researcher that Biology teachers should always utilize realia when teaching Biology in order to promote the teaching of Biology and enhance the academic performance of students.

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study     

Biology as a science subject is taught by using different methods which employs the use of all sense organs including Olfactory (smell), Gustatory (taste), auditory (hearing), Kinesthetic (skin), and optical (seeing) of which only the application of theory in teaching  could not yield 100% accuracy without the use of real objects. Thus, effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools with the use of real objects is very necessary if Biology teachers must gainfully achieve their educational goals.

According to Nzewi and Nwasu (2010), the teaching of Biology cannot be effective without interaction between the teachers, students and the environmental resources. Therefore, it’s called for the use of real objects. Teaching and learning processes are very crucial at all levels of educational development if well planned and directed. The right instructional materials have to be used in order to enhance effective teaching.

Realia are real objects used in the teaching/learning process such as plants and animals’ specimens, realia of human skeletons, soil samples, laboratory apparatus, including two and three dimensional objects.  Realia resources usage increases the motivation of the teachers and learners; they add clarity to the topic taught and make learning more interesting. Permanent learning is the goal of education in that the learners should be able to retain what is taught and make learning more permanent since they appeal to more than one sense.

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Omokoro (2012) revealed that learners retain most of what they hear, see and feel than what they merely hear. This concept bears credence to the old adage which says ‘what I hear I forget, what I see I remember, and what I do I understand. According to Drewery (2013), any instruction that encourages the use of real objects makes abstract ideas more concrete to the learners. Therefore, the teacher’s duty is to make learning lively, not just something to remember but part of living experience. This can be done effectively by employing the use of realia (real objects) in teaching of Biology as a means of imparting knowledge to learners.

Educators have come to realize that the most effective teaching takes place when an individual has direct experience with the subject under study. In other word, learners learn best by doing. This can only occur when the learners are familiar with the instructional materials that the teacher makes use of (Agibe, 2010).

Realia are used as props to show, point out, or provide examples of a system or phenomenon. Visual resources are books, charts, motion pictures, posters, diagrams, and photographs. Realia play a great role in clarifying nonverbal symbols and promote interaction among our students and their subject teachers.

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Chime (2010) stated that, the utilization of realia in the classroom make students participate effectively in the teaching process hence enhancing quality education that enables them to suit in the current society in relation to technological changes. Realia used enhanced visual imagery, stimulate learning and assist the teacher to properly convey the topic content to the learner, to achieve better understanding and to perform well.

The importance of instructional resources to the successful implementation of the Biology curriculum cannot be overemphasized. This is because the use of instructional resources such as realia is a sine qua non for effective behavioural change in learners (Jimon, 2015). This is why Okibia (2011), noted that when students are given one opportunity to learn through more sense, they learn faster and easier.

He further referred to realia as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learner. They are materials used to assist and transference of information from one person to another. In other words, realia are learning materials. It offers a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination with different teaching and learning experiences as well as encourages learners to become skilled technicians with an endless passion for learning.

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Okobia (2011) summarized the importance of using realia in the classroom to include: making the subject matter more real; explicating difficult concepts, making the learners have interest in learning and preventing misconceptions. It is against this background that the study sought to find out the extent of realia usage in teaching Biology among Biology teachers in secondary schools.

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

  • Statement of Problem

Biology has been an important subject offered in secondary school system. Its impact is reflected in all aspect of life because it is the study of life. The study of Biology provides students with basic life skills and processes that help to prepare them to become productive members of the society. With this importance of the subject, it is necessary that the teachers who are the implementers of the curriculum utilize real objects in the teaching of Biology to get the students to perform optimally in the subject.

But over the years, the poor academic achievement of students in this very important subject has continued to be a source of worried to the educational planners and government agencies (Essien, 2012). The causes of this poor academic performance of students have been attributed to so many factors such as wrong utilization of instructional aids. Thus, the researcher considered it necessary to examine realia usage and teaching of Biology in secondary schools.

  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine realia usage and teaching of Biology in Secondary School in Ini Local Government Area.

Specially, the study aimed at:

  1. Accessing the extent of Realia utilization in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area.
  2. Examining the impact of Realia usage in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area.
  • Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. To what extent is Realia utilize in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area?
  2. To what extent does Realia usage impact on the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area?
    • Significance of the Study
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The result of this study will be immense benefits to students, teachers, schools authorities and educational stakeholders in the following ways. It will enhance the learning processes of the students and thereby improve on their overall academic achievement. It will increase the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make learning more interesting.

The study will help to sensitize teacher and staff of Secondary Schools who teach biology of the important roles in promoting the application of realia in teaching and learning. This is because it will provide a basis for them to understand the need for their complimentary roles in encouraging and supporting the application of realia aids. It will further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the importance or otherwise of the use of realia in teaching and learning.

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

  • Delimitation of Study

The study was restricted to only the public secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area. It involve only the Biology teachers in all the public senior secondary schools in the study area.

  • Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered some limitation to the scope of the study which includes: Availability of Research Materials: The research material available to the researcher was insufficient, thereby limiting the study. Time: the time frame allocated for the study could not enhance wider courage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study, financial constraint.

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

  • Operational Definition of Terms

Realia: This refers to real objects that can be use to enhance the teaching/learning process.

Usage: It is the process of putting things to use.

Biology: This is the study of living and non-living component of the environment.

Teaching: this is the process of transferring knowledge from one person to another.

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Realia Usage and Teaching of Biology in Secondary School

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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