Examination Malpractice, Causes, Types and Effects on Educational Development
The research topic centers on Examination Malpractice: Causes, forms and effects on educational development in Ika Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The population of the study consisted of five hundred (500) senior secondary two students from five (5) sampled schools out of seven (7) public secondary schools amounting to two thousand one hundred and seventy-nine (2179) students.
Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The instrument that was used for data collection was structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. It was found that students’ laziness in studies, Poor preparation for examination by students, truancy, inadequate supply of teaching aids, lack of qualified and dedicated teachers in core subjects, and poor learning environment were some of the causes of examination malpractice.
It was also revealed that the forms of examination malpractice include cheating, micro-chips, tattoo, sorting, sex bribery and the use of mobile phones. The study also revealed that examination malpractice discourages reading and learning culture in schools. It leads to the production of half-baked graduates. It also frustrates effectiveness educational development in Ika Local Government Area.
Recommendations include meting proper punishment to the offenders without fear or favour, teachers must be motivated via regular payment of their salaries and other entitlements so that they would be dedicated to their teaching duties in classroom.
1.1 Background to the Study
In modern world, the process of education is no longer a chance affair. Education is regarded as a primary instrument or tool of national development. Education is a pivot for transformation, development and civilization of nations. Education is extremely useful to the society and no society can rise above the level of its educational system, or development (National Policy on Education, 2004).
However, education is the primary agent of transformation towards sustainable development. It increases people’s capacities to transform their visions into reality for the society. All countries strive for quality education for sustainable development while some countries have suffered low standard education phenomenon via the social nuisance called examination malpractice.
Examination malpractice refers to all forms of cheating which directly or indirectly falsify the academic ability of the students in an examination (Suleiman, 2013). Examination malpractice has plagued the Nigerian educational development in this century. As a result of this, people tend to lose faith in Nigerian system of education. This social menace has eaten deep into our educational system such that feeble mined person now see it as an acceptable and recognizable means of passing an examination which they seek to encourage (Ukpong, 2003).
Examination malpractice is been advocated to be caused by diverse factors. Examination malpractice has been a threat to the entire educational development of our nation. Therefore, it is against this background that this study poised to investigate examination malpractice, causes, types and effects on educational development in Ika Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In recent times, there have been alarming cases of examination malpractice among students in both internal and external examinations in schools. Examination malpractice has so penetrated the Nigerian educational system in this 21st century to the extent that it is a common practice in all levels of education. Efforts to eradicate or eliminate the menace in our educational system proved abortive.
It has become a social discomfort and a thorn in the flesh which is of great concern to a great number of people including the government. Therefore, the most disheartening concern are the causes, nature and negative consequential effect it possess on educational development in Ika Local Government Area. Thus, this problem motivates the investigation into the effect of examination malpractice on educational development in Ika Local Government Area.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study was to investigate examination malpractice, causes, nature and effects on educational development in Ika Local Government Area. The specific objectives are:
- To find out the causes of examination malpractice in Ika Local Government Area.
- To find out the nature of examination malpractice in Ika Local Government Area.
- To find out the effects of examination malpractice in Ika Local Government Area.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research study shall be significant to ministry of education, Local Education Board, education planners and curriculum developers, invigilators, examination malpractice disciplinary committee, school administrators, teachers, government, students and entire public in their attempt to combat the menace of examination malpractice in education sector.
Also research scholars and agencies would find this study as a useful reference material to them. It will further expose the causes and nature of examination malpractice which will be useful to examination malpractice disciplinary committee when taking disciplinary action. Finally, it will also provide solutions to the deteriorating effect of examination malpractice on educational development in Ika Local Government Area.
1.5 Research Questions
The following questions were formulated to guide this study:
- Are there significant causes of examination malpractice in Ika Local Government Area?
- What are the forms of examination malpractice in Ika Local Government Area?
- Are there significant effects of examination malpractice on educational development in Ika Local Government Area?
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
This study focuses on examination malpractice, causes, nature and effects on educational development in Ika Local Government Area. It covered all public secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area. The researcher used SS 2 students in secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area as a case study.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Apart from limited time frame and shortage of finance, another major limitation to this research was the inability of the researcher to cover private secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Examination: This could be regarded as an assessment intended to measure a test-take’s knowledge, skill, aptitude and physical fitness. It is defined as a formal process by which students, at all levels of education are evaluated to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specific period of time.
Examination Malpractice: Examination malpractice is defined as all forms of cheating which directly or indirectly falsify the ability of the students.
Educational Development: Educational development deals with change. This change must be cumulative and systematic. In other words, educational development refers to the refinement, improvement and expansion of existing skills via the refinement of cells already present.