Teaching Techniques and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools
This study was designed to investigate teaching techniques and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools in Egbeda Local Government Area. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprises of all SS1 – SS3 students from nine (9) public secondary schools in the study area with a population of one thousand, nine hundred and seventy five (1,975) students. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two hundred (200) students from five (5) selected secondary schools. Forty (40) students were selected from each of the secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire titled Teaching Techniques and Academic Performance of Students Questionnaire (TTAPSQ)”. The data generated for the study was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The findings from the study revealed that teaching techniques such as discovery, lecture and Enquiry teaching techniques significantly relates with student’s academic performance in Economics. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that in-service training programme should be organized for Economics teachers in order to update their knowledge on teaching techniques that is suitable for the students during lesson delivery.
The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal, 2019). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching techniques that best suit with specific objectives and level exist outcomes. The teaching technique used by the teacher in teaching determined the extent of academic performance of students in secondary school level. The concept of teaching involves the process of transmitting knowledge, skills, and values from a teacher to students in order to facilitate their learning and development. It is centered around creating a conducive learning environment, effective communication, classroom management, differentiated instruction, assessment and feedback, and fostering lifelong learning. Teaching aims to engage students, promote understanding, and support their growth and success.
Hence, teaching techniques are the different ways teachers employ to convey the learning materials to learners. It is the overall procedure in which the process of teaching is organized and executed. Instructional method is the series of actions or activities planned by the instructor and systematically provided to the learner to enable him receive and process the information, retain and recall it in order to be able to use it to tackle emerging life task and problems. Teaching is the act of educating or instructing the learners. The concept of teaching techniques encompasses various strategies, methods, and approaches employed by educators to facilitate learning and enhance student engagement (Smith, Johnson & Brown, 2021)
Westwood (2018) viewed teaching techniques as the principles and methods used for instruction to be implemented by instructors to achieve the desired learning by learners. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular instructional method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about as well as how learners learn. Amadi (2020) revealed that teaching techniques refers to all the things the instructor does in the classroom to enable the learner learn. He further stated that teaching techniques involves the instructors’ skills and manipulations on the subject matter and the learning situations in order to secure positive and desired response for the learner. There are different types of teaching techniques which include, lecture teaching technique, discovery teaching techniques, guided inquiry teaching techniques, discussion teaching techniques, demonstration teaching techniques and project teaching techniques etc.
According to Akanbi and Jekayinfa (2019), for a technique to be a good teaching technique it must involves procedures of presenting subject matter and organizing properly teacher-student interaction during the presentation. The teaching technique involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve the learning objectives efficiently. The bad choice of method by teachers to facilitate the process of knowledge transmission that does not suit the objectives brings about poor performance of students. This has been common in teaching where teachers apply teacher-centred techniques to impart knowledge to the students. According to Muema, (2018), effective teaching involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve the learning objectives efficiently. The bad choice of method by teachers to facilitate the process of knowledge transmission that does not suit the objectives brings about poor performance of students. This has been common in teaching where teachers apply teacher-centred techniques to impart knowledge to the students.
Discovery teaching technique refers to a way of questioning, seeking knowledge or information or finding out about phenomena. It involves investigation, searching, defining a problem, formulating hypothesis. This technique gives the learner the opportunity to engage in exploitation and gives students self direction to disseminate and accommodate information (Ojo, 2020).
Lecture teaching technique remains one of the most popular technique for transmitting information and ideas by teachers, trainers and speakers. Lectures can be informative, boring and overwhelming depending on the compelling nature of the message and the presenter’s style and clarity of message. (Veselinovska, 2017).
According to Anderson (2018), guided inquiry can be use as an inquiry discovery, since it allows students to discover some fact on his or her own through the aid of the teacher. Guided inquiry is a teaching technique that deals with innovative team approach to teaching and learning which the teacher and other experts and specialist point hand together to design and implement inquiry learning for the purpose of discovering of fact.
On the strength of the above, this study sought to examine the influence of teachers’ teaching techniques on students’ academic performance in Economics in Egbeda Local Government Area.
Statement of the Problem
Economic is an important subject because its knowledge is applicable in most social science related careers such as sociology, accounting and commerce. The study of Economics provides students with basic life skills and processes that help to prepare them to become productive members of the society. With this importance of the subject, it is necessary that the teachers who are the implementers of the curriculum utilize the most effective teaching techniques to get the students to perform optimally in the subject.
However, there has been a greater decrease in the performance of students in both internal and external examination because of poor teaching technique adopted by Economics teachers which inversely affect academic performance of students in learning of the subject (Economics) in secondary schools.
How can the teachers know which of the techniques is most effective? There has to be an analysis of the various techniques known in the teaching of Economics. This assessment is therefore bound to expose which is more effective not only in terms of students’ performance but also in terms of the teachers’ ability to adapt to the technique with ease while ensuring that their students can perform well. This study is poised to investigate how teaching techniques relates with academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools in Egbeda Local Government Area.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study will be to examine the relationship between teaching techniques and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools in Egbeda Local Government Area. Specifically the study seeks to:
- Assess the relationship between discovery technique and academic performance of students in Economics.
- Examine the relationship between lecture teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics.
- Examine the relationship between Enquiry teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics.
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant relationship between Discovery teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
- There is no significant relationship between lecture teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
- There is no significant relationship between Enquiry teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The Concept of Teaching Techniques and Academic Performance of Students
Teachers teaching technique is a continuous process that involves bringing desirable changes in learners through the use of appropriate methods during the course of teaching/learning. Adunola (2019) opined that in order to bring desirable changes in students, appropriate teaching techniques used by educators should be best on the subject matter. On the other hand, Bharadwaj (2019) sustained that teaching techniques works effectively mainly if they suit learners’ needs since every learner interprets and responds to questions in a unique way.
Teaching techniques are the necessary strategies for procedural purposes and for structuring appropriate learning experiences for students. These include such techniques as questioning, discussion, demonstration, guided enquiry, lecturing, field trip/excursion etc. The selection of proper instructional techniques ensures the achievement of the stated instructional objective effectively. Teaching techniques are used in the presentation of lesson to help the students learn faster and it ensures the smooth delivery of the lesson. It is a process by which an instructional module, instructional phase or an entire course is delivered (Davis, 2019).
However, teaching techniques are used to impart knowledge to students; they are the means by which the teacher attempts to impart the desired learning experience. The choice of a particular Instructional technique by the teacher is determined by number of factors which includes the content to be taught, the objectives which the teacher plans to achieve, availability of teaching/learning resources, the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if conventional teaching aids are not available, evaluation and follow-up activities and Individual learner differences (Adunola (2019).
According to Davis (2019), teaching techniques are decisions about organizing people, materials and ideas to provide learning. Furthermore, instructional techniques are the teaching methods and the materials used in the process of teaching. It determines the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives.
In addition, teaching techniques used in teaching vary from one teacher to another, depending on the information or skills that is being taught and also be influenced by the attitude and enthusiasm of the student. Various studies had been conducted concerning instructional techniques. Asikhia (2020), found that, qualification of teachers and students’ environmental factors do not influence students poor performance but teachers’ teaching techniques influence academic performance of students especially in Social Studies.
Discovery teaching techniques and academic performance of Students
Discovery refers to a way of questioning, seeking knowledge or information or finding out about phenomena. It involves investigation, searching, defining a problem, formulating hypothesis. This technique gives the learner the opportunity to engage in exploitation and gives students self direction to disseminate and accommodate information (Ojo, 2020).
Discovery teaching technique is a technique that encourages students to take a more active role in their learning process, by answering a series of questions or solving problems. Mayer (2019) added that discovery technique is based on the notion that learning takes place through classification and formation. The technique enables students to get experience in using facts and principles, processes by using mental processes and manipulating Mathematical materials.
Many researchers have worked extensively on discovery teaching technique. Nwagbo (2018) revealed that it showed good performance in students than expository similarly, Abubakar and Dodboo (2018) explained that it assist learners to understand problem solving as they learn by experiment.
Discovery teaching technique is a teaching technique that assists learners in problem solving. The technique is student-centered and activity oriented, thereby gives learners the opportunity to discover facts about a particular problem (Dike 2019).
In a study conducted by Fajemidagba (2019) to investigate the effect of discovery learning technique on students academic performance in Economics alongside influence of gender and scoring abilities of the secondary school students in Osun State, the findings revealed that all of the experimental group students exposed to discovery method performed significantly better than the control group students exposed to non-guided instructional technique.
Moreover, discovery teaching technique encourages students to actively use their intuition, imagination, and creativity because the approach starts with the specific and moves to the general. The teacher presents examples and the students work with the examples until they discover the interrelationships.
Nevertheless, Habor (2020) pointed out that the discovery technique of teaching approach is techno-scientifically oriented. It places the learner’s constructive mental ability first in all instructional processes. In order words, it is learner centered. Nevertheless, the teachers’ role in discovery is to serve as facilitator of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible, autonomous and construct their own understanding of each concept. Hence, the activities are learner-centered, democratic and interactive.
Lecture teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics
According to Lowman (2020), lecture teaching strategy is an effective strategy for communication theories, ideas, and facts to students. The basic purpose of lecturing is the dissemination of information. Nwagbo (2018) asserted that lecturing is still the predominant form of teaching in post secondary and its greatest advantage is its ability to share information with a large number of students. Many authors argue that the lecture teaching strategy is as effective in communication factual information as any other instructional technique. Lecture strategy of teaching provides a summary or synthesis of information from different sources and as such creates interest in a subject as lectures transmit enthusiasm about their discipline.
Lowman (2020) opined that lecture teaching strategy to a very large extent is a traditional method of teaching adults. It is essentially autocratic in form and style. It appears that lecture is the easiest teaching strategy since the teacher’s role is apparently to transmit information. Lecture teaching strategy is a one way flow of communication from the teacher to the students. The method is a teacher-centered approach where most of the talking is carried out by the teacher while the students remain as passive listeners taking down notes.
However, Lowman (2020) posited that lecture teaching strategy is the most widely used form of presentation. Lectures are used for introduction of new subjects, summarizing ideas, showing relationships between theory and practice, and reemphasizing main points. The lecture method is adaptable to many different settings including either small or large groups. Lectures also may be used to introduce a topic or a complete training programme.
According to Obanya (2007), a lecture is usually an exposition. It is used at all levels of education. Whenever the teacher does most of the talking, a lecture can be said to be taking place. At the Primary and Secondary School levels, this method may not be very suitable. This according to Ekanem (2006) is mainly because real teacher student interaction is necessary to promote learning. In a lecture, the learner simply listens or pretends to listen and writes down a few notes. A lecture instructional approach does not always permit the teacher to know the students since it does not encourage students’ activities which can help the teacher to know what the learners are capable of.
Moreover, young learners particularly those still battling with language problems cannot make useful notes from lectures. It is also not a suitable method for the slow learners. Okwilagwe (2018) stated that even at the tertiary level of education, the value of lecture is being seriously questioned these days in college and University lectures are being urged to combine the lecture method with other methods of teaching where possible.
Adewaya (2017) maintained that with the lecture teaching strategy, one can deal with very large class in a comparative short time. There are cases also at the lower level of education when the lecture method may require a certain amount of storytelling.
Lectures teaching strategy may include several different types of delivery. However, depending on the requirements of any particular circumstances, a lecture is usually delivered in one of ways:
- Reading from a typed or written manuscript.
- Reciting memorized materials without the aid of a manuscript.
- Speaking extemporaneously from an outline.
- Speaking impromptu without preparation.
Doyle (2018) maintained that an effective lecture teaching strategy include the use of images that illustrate the concepts and ideas being discussed. Images are among the most powerful instructional tools as 70% of the sensory cortex of the brain is made up of visual context.
Enquiry Techniques and Academic Performance of Students
Academic performance of students is influence by the techniques adopted by teachers during teaching of the subject. It has been argued that, in many schools subject like Economics, guided inquiry teaching technique is the only flexible technique of attaining the course objective. This can be said to be true of such subjects like Economics and other social science subjects. According to Anderson (2018), guided inquiry can be use as an inquiry discovery, since, it allows students to discover some fact on his or her own through the aid of the teacher. Guided inquiry is a teaching technique that deals with innovative team approach to teaching and learning which the teacher and other experts and specialist point hand together to design and implement inquiry learning for the purpose of discovering of fact.
Enquiry, the teacher usually chooses the questions for investigation, while the students will find out the solution to the questions under investigation. The teacher work is to guide and direct on what to do. While the students work is to find out solution to a particular task for effective and successful academic achievements.
In guided inquiry method, teachers and learners play a crucial role in asking questions, developing answers and structuring of materials and cases. The usage of guided inquiry method is very important in transition from lecturing method to other teaching methods which are less and more clearly structured for alternative solutions. Guided inquiry activities help students to develop their individual responsibility, cognitive methods, report making, problem solving and understanding skills. According to Anderson (2018), guided inquiry environments can best facilitate focusing on learning the development of certain scientific concepts, but while students in the teachers’ guidance focus their attention on to the content, they have less suitable means for discovering scientific thinking processes and gaining experience.
According to Bulbul (2019) guided inquiry teaching technique provides the input for the student with a problem to investigate along with the procedures and materials. This type of inquiry learning is used to teach a specific concept, fact or skill and leads the way to open inquiry where the student formulates his own problem to investigate. An example of a structured inquiry learning approach is the Learning Inquiry Cycle Model, based on Piagets theory of cognitive learning. The learning cycle model is a teaching procedure consistent with the inquiry nature of science and with the way children naturally learn.
However, Ola (2019) posited that Enquiry requires the instruction of five discrete elements:
(a) Engagement: The teacher or a curriculum task accesses the learners’ prior knowledge and helps them become engaged in a new concept through the use of short activities that promote curiosity and elicit prior knowledge.
(b) Exploration: Exploration experiences provide students with a common base of activities within which current concepts (particularly misconceptions), processes, and skills are identified and conceptual change is facilitated.
(c) Explanation: The explanation phase focuses students’ attention on a particular aspect of their engagement and exploration experiences and provides opportunities to demonstrate their conceptual understanding, process skills, or behaviors. This phase also provides opportunities for teachers to directly introduce a concept, process, or skill.
(d) Elaboration: After receiving explanations about main ideas and terms for their learning tasks, it is important to involve the students in further experiences that extend, or elaborate, the concepts, processes, or skills. This elaboration phase facilitates the transfer of concepts to closely related but new situations. In some cases, students may still have misconceptions, or they may only understand a concept in terms of the exploratory experience.
(e) Evaluation: This is the important opportunity for students to use the skills they have acquired and evaluate their understanding. In addition, the students should receive feedback on the adequacy of their explanations.
Olibie and Ezeoba (2020) viewed guided inquiry teaching technique as a student centred method of teaching whereby students interact actively, question assumptions and provide their viewpoints on any area of subject matter. The teacher in this approach to instruction is behind the curtain. He guides, facilitates and prompts students to conduct investigations and construct their own meaning of the events and phenomena that occur naturally. Oloyede (2019) posited that the inquiry teaching technique is a style or method of teaching where the leaner with minimum guidance from the teacher seeks to discover and create answers to a recognized problem through procedure of making an industrious search.
This chapter deals with the methodology employed in carrying out this research. It is organized based on the following sub-headings; Area of the Study, Research Design, Population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrument for Data collection, validation of the instrument, administration of the instruction and Method of Data Analysis.
The survey research design was adopted for the study. This is to allow the population due representation in the study. The design method is appropriate because there is no manipulation of independent variables and the data gathered in a survey method are usually responses to predetermined questions that are asked of a sample of respondents.
Population of the Study and Sample and Sampling technique
The population of this study consisted of all the SS1 – SS3 students from all the six (6) public secondary schools who offered Economics in the study area with an estimated number of one thousand, nine hundred and seventy five (1,975) students in the study area. Simple random sampling technique was used to select both the schools and students used in this study. Five (5) schools were sampled out irrespectively of their locations. From each of the selected schools, sample size of forty (40) students were used as the subjects of the study. The total sample size of two hundred (200) students were used for the study.
Instrument for data collection
The main instrument for data collection for the study was an administrative questionnaire tagged “Teaching Techniques and Academic Performance of Students Questionnaire (TTAPSQ)”. The instrument was divided into section A and B. Section A contains the personal data of the respondent, while sections b contained fifteen (15) items. The item was divided in such a ways that five (5) items were assigned for each of the variable. Accordingly, the items were assigned with a likert scale of strongly disagree =1, disagree =2, agree =3, strongly agree =4.
Administration of the Instrument
The researcher visited all the schools selected for the study to administered the questionnaire. Permission was obtained from the principals of each selected school from whom the students were obtained. From the list, the subjects used for the study were selected and copied of the questionnaire given to them. The researcher took time to explain both the method of responding to each item as well as difficult items to the respondents to avoid misunderstanding. It was assisted by teachers. Thereafter, it was retrieved immediately for data analysis.
Method of Data Analysis
The instrument for data analysis adopted for the study was Pearson Product Moment Correlation.
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between Discovery teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
Table 1: Pearson Product moment correlation analysis showing the relationship between discovery teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics
|Discovery teaching technique (X)
|Students’ Academic performance (Y)
significant at .05 alpha level, df = 198, Decision: HOI is rejected
The analysis of hypothesis 1 revealed that the r-calculated value of 0.73 was greater than the r-critical value of 0.127 at 198 degree of freedom under 0.05 level of significance. Based on this, the formulated null hypothesis for the study was rejected, thereby accepting that alternative hypothesis. This implies that there is a significant relationship between discovery teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between lecture teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
Table 2: Pearson Product moment correlation analysis showing the relationship between lecture teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics.
|Lecture teaching technique (X)
|Students’ Academic performance (Y)
significant at .05 alpha level, df = 198, Decision: HOI is rejected
The result of data analysis from table 1 above revealed that the r-calculated value of 0.68 was greater than the r-critical value of 0.112 at 0.05 level of significance under 198 degree of freedom as such the stated null hypothesis formulated for the study was rejected, thereby accepted the alternative hypothesis. This implies that there is a significant relationship between lecture teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship between Enquiry teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
Table 3: Pearson Product moment correlation analysis showing the relationship between guided inquiry teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
|Guided inquiry teaching technique (X)
|Students’ Academic performance (Y)
significant at .05 alpha level, df = 198, Decision: HOI is rejected
From the table, the study was observed to be significant due to the fact the r-calculated value of 0.471 was greater than r-critical value of 0.212 at 198 degree of freedom under 0.05 levels of significant relationship in the performance of students who taught through guided inquiry teaching technique. As such, the stated hypothesis of no significant relationship was rejected while the alternative hypothesis was retained.
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn that:
- There is a significant relationship between discovery teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
- There is a significant relationship between lecture teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
- There is a significant relationship between guided inquiry teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:
- Teachers in secondary schools should embrace discovery teaching technique so that students in secondary schools will developed their different skills on problem solving.
- The ministry of education and other governmental agencies involved in the educational system should provide financial incentives to teachers at secondary school level in order to boost their morale in adoption of modern teaching techniques for effective lesson delivery.
- Government teachers should attend conferences, workshops and in-service programmes to upgrade their knowledge on how to use modern teaching techniques in teaching.
- Teachers in secondary schools should be exposed to different teaching techniques and abide with the ones suitable for the learners at a particular time for effective flow of information between the teacher and the learners.
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