Teacher demonstration method on academic achievement of students in Physics in senior secondary schools in Ihhitte/Uboma
This research work examined the effect of teacher demonstration method on academic achievement of students in Physics in senior secondary schools in Ihhitte/Uboma. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 alpha levels of significance. The population of the study comprised 2,278 secondary two (SS2) Physics students in Ihhitte/Uboma of the 2021/2022 academic session. The sample size used for the study was one hundred students (100) draw from two public schools. Physics Achievement Test (PAT) was the instrument used to collect data for the study. This instrument was tested on thirty (30) students and the reliability co-efficient of 0.74 was obtained using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). Data obtained for the study were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics analysis, findings showed that: there is a significant different between the mean performance scores of physics students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method and those taught using lecture teaching method; there is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of physics students by gender when taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method; and that there is no significant difference between mean score of physics students by ability level when taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method. It was therefore recommended that physics teachers should incorporate demonstration method of teaching during lesson delivery in Physics.
Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge people can communicate to each other and share. It is the bedrock on which modern day technology breakthrough is hinged and also a systematic study of the nature of the behavior of the material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, measurement and recording. The objectives of science education in this country according to Maduekwe (2021) includes the need to prepare students to observe and explore the environment, explain simple natural phenomena, develop scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity, apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science.
the National Policy on Education (2018) clearly recognized the role of the teacher when it declared that teacher’s education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning and development. This is because the role of a teacher remains pivotal for the overall performance of the educational objectives of the nation. This statement also backs up what the National Policy on Education which stated that no education can rise above the level of its teachers, owing to the fact, the teachers select, organized, arrange and implement the curriculum of the nation. Therefore, their technique of teaching need to be suitable in teaching the concept they want to teach.
The major goal of teaching physics is to develop scientifically literate individual that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions. The overall objective of physics as enumerated in Federal Ministry of Education (2019) were to enable students develop interest in science and technology, apply their scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet societal needs, take advantage of the numerous career opportunity offered by the science and technology, become prepared for further studies in science and technology, to avoid drugs abuse and to be safety and security conscious. Physics is resource intensive and in an era of poor finding or scarcity of resources.
Physics deals with the study of laws that determine the structure of the universe with reference to the matter and energy in the universe (Ike, 2020). In the words of Olarinoye (2020) “Physics is the most utilized physics subject in most technology and technology- related profession”. This merely indicates that the enormous role Physics plays in the technological growth of any nation must not be undermined. It is germane to say that the technological growth of a nation leads to its social and economic development.
The importance of Physics for the development of a nation is, therefore, glaring. Physics is the most basic of the sciences and its concepts and techniques underpin the understanding of other disciplines: A thorough understanding of mechanics is necessary to chemists and material scientists since the structure of every atom in the universe is determined by mechanics.
The study of Physics make students have first-hand experiences of the way a problem situation is tackled by a scientist; inquisitive about their physical environment; enables students to comprehend the major unifying science concepts and pattern such as the principle of conservation of energy and the interrelationship between each composition of living things. It provides opportunities for students to get acquainted with science process skills such as measuring, observing, experimenting, inferring, predicting, classifying, communicating, and recording of data. Sequel to the above importance of physics, the effective learning of the subject in schools is therefore desirable.
However, despites the crucial place of physics in technological development, many factors have hindered the successive implementation of the core curriculum of physics. These factors according to Chukwuneke and Chikwenze (2020) include teachers’ method of teaching, learning environment, student’s view of the subject, availability of instructional aids, among others these hindrances had led to the poor academic achievement of students in school examinations. Research has revealed that the measurements of students’ previous educational outcomes are the most important indication of students’ future achievement.
It is generally assumed that the students who showed better or higher achievement in the starting class of their studies also performed better in future academic years (Alu, Shoukat, Zubair, Haider, FahadMunir, Hamid-Khan, Awais and Ahmed, 2018). Low interest of students towards biology (Esiobu, 2020), lack of instructional materials (Lazarus, 2019) and poor funding (Folorunso, 2018). Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2018) recommended practical, exploratory and experimental methods for teaching and learning of scientific process in school. In this regard, Albert (2020) stated that teaching approaches such as demonstration method, field trip method, discussion method, inquiry-based method and expository approach are capable of enhancing student’s academic performance in science (physics inclusive).
Demonstrations provide a multi-sensory means to describe a concept, idea, or product that may otherwise be difficult to grasp by verbal description alone (Cabibihan, 2018). Demonstrations method has emerged to become an instructional method that is gaining rising interest within the science education (Hadim and Esche 2020). Research has found that diverse students benefit vastly when they have the opportunity to participate in activities, interact with materials and manipulate objects and equipment (Enang, 2018).
An earlier work that made use of demonstration method in Physics reported an increase in student attendance from thirty percent to eighty percent (Akpabio, 2018). Ogwo and Oranu (2021) affirm that demonstration method is the most widely used teaching method for acquisition of practical skills as it includes the verbal and practical illustration of a given procedure. The authors have further added that the strategy is highly effective because it contains active of the students.
Conventionally, lecture method is a common strategy teachers employ in the teaching of physics. It is also referred to as talk and chalk or textbook method (Enang, 2018). In the course of employing the method, the teacher dominates the teaching with very little participation on the part of the students. Here the teacher is seen as the repository of all knowledge while the students are passive recipients of knowledge transmitted by the teachers in the process of learning.
The method has the advantage of covering a wider area within a short time but it is not student centered and students do not gain mastery of concepts. It involves a verbal presentation of ideas, concepts, generalization and facts by the teacher who dominates the learning situation (Ogbodo, Etuk and Afangideh, 2018). The practice in this method is that of spoon feeding the students with information or facts while the students take down notes. Lecture method provides aesthetic pleasure, save time and energy and leads to an easy coverage of the school syllabus (Ekanem, 2018).
Demonstration and Lecture teaching methods are teaching methods which may be effectively used to enhance the academic performance of male and female students in biology. Gender refers to the roles and responsibilities of men and women based on family, society or culture. The concept of gender is the expectations held about the attitude, characteristics and likely behavior of men and woman in the society (Ezeh, 2018). There is a general belief among Nigerians that men are superior to women in terms of physical build-up intelligence and reasoning.
According to Okeke (2019), gender and gender stereotyping have brought discrepancies in academic performance which is a matter of great concern to science education Bajon (2019) note that most parents in the past did not want to spend much money training their female children in school due to cultural and social reasons. Some studies on gender and students academic performance. Having critically examined these two methods of teaching, the question now is what is the effect of demonstration method on students’ academic performance in physics when compared with lecture method of teaching in the concept of oscillatory motion in secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area?
Statement of the Problem
Education sector in Nigeria has series of challenges. The important area of physics challenge is inability to select appropriate instructional strategy by teachers in schools. Improving quality in education requires adequate competent teachers, appropriate facilities, materials and methods which are lacking; these form part of the problems in the study. Thus, one the major challenge of the educational system is the teachers’ knowledge of selecting appropriate instructional strategy for teaching physics at all levels, which also affect the quality delivery of educational institutions, teacher’s training.
Students performance in biology have been attributed to the use of traditional methods in biology teaching, low level of students toward biology, lack of instructional materials, poor funding and the influence of gender. If preventive measures are not taken to improve the poor performance of students in regards, the hope of producing scientists for technological development in the near future will not be realized. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the effect of teaching oscillatory motion using demonstration and lecture method on students’ achievement in physics in secondary schools in Ihhitte/Uboma.
Purpose of the Study
Generally, the study seeks to investigate the effect of teaching oscillatory motion using demonstration and lecture method on students’ achievement in physics in secondary schools in Ihhitte/Uboma. The study specifically seeks to;
Significance of the Study
This study will be useful to curriculum planners, teachers, students and parents in the following ways:
To Curriculum planners: The findings of the study will help them to know the need for including in the curricular for Nigerian Science teachers of tomorrow what type of method to include for instruction.
To teachers: it will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resource fullness among Physics teachers as they will have to think of selecting relevant instructional technique for their lesson.
To students: the findings of this study will equip them with the knowledge of the effect of participating during lesson presentation by the teachers in class.
To Parents: the finding of the study will assist them to know the need of assisting in providing materials through Parents Teaches Association for teachers to use in demonstrating concepts in Physics.
To government: the study will provide them with sound knowledge of organizing seminars to teachers on the instructional methods selection and utilization in teaching of Physics.
The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars will guide the choice of improvised instructional methods used in the teaching/learning process in physics and other subject areas.
Future researchers will use the outcome of the research as reference materials on related topics.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The following theories of learning were discussed under the following headings:
Jerome Bruner’s Learning Theory
This theory was conducted by Jerome Bruner in 1966 and it is also known as the constructivist approach. The theory was propounded by the American Psychologist Jerome Seymour Bruner in 1966 during his research on the cognitive development of children. The theory states that learning occurs in three stages of cognitive representation. There are enactive stage (the representation of knowledge through action), iconic state (visual summarization of images and symbolic stage (the use of words and other symbols to describe experiences). Each stage is a “way in which information or knowledge are stored and encoded in the memory” (Mc Leod, 2018).
The intellectual discomfort created by the inconsistencies make the student to attempt to bring others out of this confusion by engaging in mental processes i.e discovery activities which involves observation, hypothesizing, measuring, stating problem, data collection, classifying, inferring. Through mental processes, the students can generate facts from his/her desperate experiences. Bruner was of the views that the students should find out information on their own using mental processes. The theory places great emphasis on the three types of human activities for learning i.e the three information processing systems which are:
- Physical Activity (motor activities) called Enactive representation such as demonstration of materials using the demonstration teaching method.
- Imagery called ionic representation
- Symbolic activities
The three activities coexist with each other and for this reason; the attainment of one does not mean the total abandonment of the others.
At enactive stage, the child manipulates the learning materials directly by neuromuscular activities. At ionic stages, the child deals with mental images of objects, but does not manipulate them directly. At symbolic stage, the child uses language. The interpretation of the above is that if a child, stays at secondary school level shows deficiencies in his/her learning capacity especially in symbolic representation, it could be that he/she was deficient in early stages (i.e. Enactive and Ionic stages) which he/she skipped. It is therefore necessary to fill in the missing gap by providing concrete support that will make up for the deficiency.
However, application of Bruner’s theory of learning to science teaching/learning is that: The science teacher should intentionally create or present to students either in form of apparent contradiction or inconsistency among sources of information which are giving in the process of instruction. Encouraging discovery learning in science class by science teachers will result into aiding problem solving. Students should be taught concepts in such a way that they have applicability beyond the situation in which they were learned. Bruner supported the spiral nature of curriculum as we have in our present science curriculum at all levels of education.
Bruner’s theory thus suggests that it is effective when faced with new materials to follow a progression from enactive through iconic to symbolic stages of representation. Bruner’s theory of development is of importance to this study since laboratory teaching approach provides an avenue for students to see, touch and manipulate objects during demonstration learning sessions. This will result in hands-on learning, development of manipulating skills and conceptualization of theoretical concepts learnt in class.
Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning Theory
David Paul Ausubel (1962) was an American psychologist who first introduced his Assimilation Learning Theory in 1962. Ausubel’s theory primarily explains that for individual to learn meaningfully, they must relate new knowledge (concepts and preposition) to what they already know. He also proposed the notion of advanced organizers as a way of helping students link their previous ideas with new materials or concepts.
The conceptual framework of this study focused on the concept of oscillatory motion in Physics, the meaning and application of demonstration method of teaching and the meaning and application of lecture method.
Demonstration is the practical exhibition of explanation of how something works or is performed. Demonstration is an act of showing that something exists or is true by giving proof or evidence. Demonstration means to clearly show. In teaching through demonstration, students are set up to potentially conceptualize class material more effectively as shown in a study which specifically focuses on science demonstrations presented by teachers. Demonstrations often occur when students have a hard time connecting theories to actual practice or when students are unable to understand application of theories.
Teachers do not only demonstrate specific learning concepts within the classroom, they can also participate in demonstration classrooms to help improve their own teaching strategies, which may or may not be demonstrative in nature. Although the literature is limited, studies show that the effects of demonstration classroom teachers includes a change of perspective in relating to students, more reflection in the teachers own classroom strategies, and more personal responsibility for student learning. Demonstration, or clearly showing (a gamut that ranges from mere pointing to more sophisticated strategies such as chemical reactions), can possibly be used in portraying ideas such as defining words. At first, simple observation and communication through pointing to an object, area, or place, like the sun, moon, or a large mountain top, occurs.
According to Ekanem (2017) there are various types of demonstration, viz: teacher’s demonstration, students’ demonstration, guest demonstration and teacher-students demonstration.
- Teacher’s demonstration
This type of demonstration involves showing the students the right apparatus, illustrating a technique, performing an experiment which is dangerous, risky, difficult or expensive for individual student to use by the teacher.
- Guest Demonstration
This involves the demonstration presented to the members of the class by a guest (specialist in that particular field) invited by the teacher. This is important as the teacher may really know the technicalities in the concept presented and will assist the students to master the concept better than when the teacher present it.
- Student Demonstration
There are times when the need to teach individual students one at a time in workshop or in a laboratory may arise. Again, this is based on the theory of individual differences among students such as differences in background mechanical aptitude and general learning ability, irregularity in attendance as well as differences in speed. The ultimate objective here is to show individual; student in detail the procedure to follow in accomplishing a given task. Here only a member of the class present the demonstration having been taught generally by the teacher to the class for the teacher to assess the level of understanding of the concept in question.
The lecture method is commonly known as lecture method. It is the oldest method of instruction in which knowledge and information (subject matter and content) are presented to the learners by the teacher who invariably dominates the teaching learning process (Etuk, Udosen, Emah, Edem and Afangideh, 2019). The lecture method is also called deductive approach because the teachers often start with a definition of concepts or principles, illustrates them, and unfolds their implications on the board occasionally while students take down notes: student on their own part become passive recipients of knowledge (Ogbodo, Etuk and Afangideh, 2018). Lecture method goes beyond just presenting student with facts.
It involves presenting clear and concise information in a purposeful way for on concept to another (Curzon, 2016). The teacher should also be able to use words that are familiar to the students, modulate his vice tone/pitch and also use gestures in a way that does not prevent students understanding of the concept at hand. Most educationists believe that students learn new concepts better if all they need to know is laid before them. Lecture approach is laid before them. Lecture approach makes room for large amounts of materials to be covered to a large class size in a single period. It provides aesthetic pleasure, promotes a good relationship between the teacher and the students during the course of the lesson and also awakens critical thinking skills in the students.
The use of lecture method of teaching entails a one way flow of communication from the teacher to the students Nworgu (2019), described it as a teacher centered approach in which most of the talking is carried out by the teacher who is assumed to have store of knowledge while the student’s listen and remain passive. The lecture instructional strategy is only concerned with verbal presentation of concepts and ideas to the students. Hence, it does not promote meaningful learning since students are not actively involved in the learning process. According to Ekanem (2016), at the primary and secondary school levels this instructional strategy may not be very suitable. Student’s interaction is essential for the promotion of learning. In lecture, the learner’s simply listen to or pretend and writes down a few notes.
Lecture instructional strategy also cannot be useful for slow learners since it is a fast instructional strategy of teaching.Nyoku (2017) believed that in lecture method of teaching, theory is taught as an absolute knowledge, hence students centered activities for developing scientific reasoning skills and process are lacking. This instructional strategy is known to cause lack of interest and poor performance in physics.
In a study conducted by Hartly (2017) comparing the notes students took during conventional instructional strategies with what the lecture actually said. The author posited that students did not regard the teacher primarily as which they need to expand independently to achieve full learning thereby making it an efficient means of giving a vast amount of knowledge in limited time. The author went on to assert that lecture method of teaching of teaching does not promote meaningful learning (especially in physics) as it appeals only to the sense of hearing leading to rote learning aiding understanding as well as poor academic performance of student. Lecture method of teaching makes learners passive listeners to the development of lesson causing non-participation of students which consequently decreases the academic performance of students in schools. This is because of its disadvantages in the teaching of sciences. The teaching of physics without adequate demonstration makes teaching, teachers centered, thus making students prone to route learning which does not develop in the students, the attitude of scientific enquiry.
Gender is male or female; gender difference has remained a very strong issue in education since it has been linked to achievement. The existence of differences in achievement between males and females have been attributed to unequal exposure of male and female students to experiences relevant to physics learning and this is occasioned by traditional cultural attitude towards the females which restricts them from activities (Nbina and Viko 2017). Okebukola (2018) in a study of science classroom interaction in Nigerian secondary schools reported that males are given more opportunities to ask questions, manipulate materials and stay longer on a task. Also, parents tend to encourage the males to take advantage of high school courses like physics, mathematics and physics and have higher expectations for their success than for female counterparts.
Nzewi (2020) indicates that females prefer teaching strategies that encourages students’ participation in designing experiments, making inference, proposing and testing hypotheses but these are often encountered in biology than in physics and physics. Therefore, while understating the need to address gender differences represents a vital step, making education gender responsive will require a genuine commitment to provide teaching-learning experiences that reflect male and female differences. In physics learning, females tend to shy away from it because they perceive it as being difficult and they are not fully ready to carry out experiments (Nzewi 2020).
Females see themselves as not being well energetic to carry out some experiments associated with physics learning. The males on the other side are ready to take risks and actively participate in the experiments and perform mathematical operations involved with the encouragement of teachers and parents. Okeke (2021) said that science teachers are known to expect high achievements in science from males than females and this has affected female students’ achievement with male students performing better.
According to Limon and Mason (2020), on the average, females perform better than males and females get higher grades and complete high school at higher rate compared to males. In recent times, both males and females achieve equally under the same conditions during teaching and learning (Bassey 2017). Udo (2017) reported that gender has no effect on students’ performance in physics. With respect to gender, gender is not a significant determinant of students’ performance in physics. The observation agrees with that of Udo and Udo (2017). Therefore in physics, there is no significant difference on the basis of gender in students’ achievement and so no special attention may be attached to gender of the students when teaching and learning takes place (Oloyede 2017).
The empirical review is discussed under the following sub-headings, Activity-based learning method and student’s performance in Physics Jumbo (2019) investigated demonstration method and academic performance of students in Physics in secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area. The population of the study was all senior secondary two students; the sample size was 100 and the quasi-experimental design was employed for the study and the instrument for data collection was Physics Achievement Test standardized by experts in test and measurement in University of Uyo.
The findings showed that lecture method has negative effects on students. Such effects as include total lack of motivation; in ability to cover the contents of the curriculum, negative attitude towards the subjects and low academic performance on the part of the students. The findings concluded that there is a significant difference in mean achievement scores of students taught using teacher’s demonstration method and those taught using lecture method in favour of those taught using teacher’s demonstration method in secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area.
Oyedeji (2020) investigated the effect of teaching methods on academic achievement of students in physics in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area using quasi-experimental design and a sample of two hundred senior secondary two students from two clans in Abak Local Government Area. The findings explained that demonstration method works on the principle that knowledge and ideas are best achieved when the students are exposed to the real situation and that teacher’s demonstration method of teaching engages the students and the teachers in thinking. The findings showed that there is a significant difference between the academic performance of students taught using teacher’s demonstration and those taught using lecture method in Physics.
In an empirical study conducted by Patrick (2017) on teaching methods and students’ academic performance in Physics in secondary schools in Boki Local Government Area. The population was all Physics students in senior secondary two who registered for Physics in 2019/2017 academic session. Sample adopted in this study was one hundred and the instrument for data collection was Physics Performance Test (BPT) designed using past questions of WAEC. The findings of the study discovered that students taught using teacher’s demonstration performed academically better than students taught using conventional method.
The researcher holds that teaching methods such as teacher’s demonstration is related to students’ academic performance in Physics in private secondary schools in Boki Local Government Area. Rahman (2020) undertook a study to examine the impact of lecture and demonstration method on the subject of science (Physics incisive) at secondary school. The study revealed that the group taught with demonstration method performed better than the control group which indicated the usefulness of demonstration method in teaching of sciences at secondary school level. The author further stressed that in view of the effectiveness of demonstration method in teaching science it may be tried in specific area of science like Physics and other level of education.
This finding is in line with Ihiebulan (2017) who posited in his study on enhancing the teaching of Physics through the use of available local natural resources in secondary schools in Aba metropolis that firsthand experience in observing life around us is very important. This is in line with Chinese proverb that says “what we hear, we forget, what we see, we remember, what we take part in doing, we understand”.
Clarke (2021) conducted a research on effect of demonstration method and lecture method on students’ academic performance in Physics. Clarke used pretest-post test quasi experimental control groups design with a sample size of one hundred and twenty students (120) in the middle test of Malaysia. The data was collected using Physics Achievement Test (BAT) and t-test statistics was used to analyzed the results. Clarke discovered that those who were taught Physics using lecture method perform better than those who were taught Physics using demonstration method.
In another study carried out by Harold (2019) on the effect of lecture method on students’ academic performance and attitude in science, the research design. The study comprised of One hundred sixty-six (166) students on Bureti District Kenya, data was collected using the Student Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) and t-test one way ANOVA and ANCOVA statistical technique were used to and analyzed data. The findings indicated that students taught Physics using lecture method provide aesthetic pleasure and awaken critical thinking skill in the students.
The results of this study coincide with Curzon (2016) who conducted a research on the effects of lecture method and students interest towards Physics in the middle age school, Turkey. The quasi experimental control groups design. Out of the ninety(90) students from the sample schools is he, he discovered that the control groups who were taught Physics using lecture method performed significantly better than the experimental group who were taught Physics using inquiry based method. He conclude that students developed interests in their studies due to the interaction between them and their teacher since students who are immature learn more when they listen than when they read.
Gender differentiation is an old and long controversial issue in education. Different opinions and view abound on the issue of gender and its effect on students’ achievement especially in science. There are two strong opposing schools of thoughts as regards to the effect of gender and achievement in science. While some schools and researchers, Obiekwe (2019) and Okoro (2020) contend that male students achieve higher than their female counterparts in science, the other school of thought Okeke (2017) and Nzewi (2017) are of the view that females achieve as high as their male counterparts when given equal opportunities.
Obiekwe (2018) investigated the effects of constructivism instructional approach on student’s achievement and interest in Basic ecological concepts in Physics. As earlier reviewed, gender is one of the variables. Findings from the study indicated that male students benefited more significantly than the female counterparts on both achievement and interests in basic ecological concepts using constructivists’ instructional approaches. Okoro (2020) studied the effect of interaction patterns on achievement and interest in Physics among secondary school students. Findings from this study indicated that male students’ achievement and interest scores were significantly higher than that of their female counterparts expose to three interaction patterns (co-operative, comparative, and individualistic patterns of learning).
In contrary to the findings of Okoro (2020) and Jumbo (2019) investigated demonstration method and academic performance of students in Physics in secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area. The population of the study was all senior secondary two students; the sample size was 100(42 males and 40 females) and the quasi-experimental design was employed for the study and the instrument for data collection was Physics Achievement Test standardized by experts in test and measurement in University of Uyo.
The independent t-test statistical technique was employed in testing the hypotheses. Analysis of the result showed that there were no significant difference in the achievement of male and females exposed to demonstration of teaching methods. Similarly, Udom (2019) conducted a study on gender difference and academic performance of students in Physical and Health Education in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government. This study adopted one hundred and twenty sample and employed Physical and Health Education Achievement Test as the instrument for data collection. The data collected was analyzed using independent t-test and the result was tested at 0.05 levels of significance. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the achievement of male and female students used to determine the effect of guided inquiry and demonstration methods on science process skill acquisition among Physics secondary school students in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
Design adopt for the study is quasi-experimental research design. Specifically, the pretest-post test control groups deign is used on the intact classes. This is symbolized as
E = O1 X1 O2
C = O3 X2 O4
E stands for experimental group
C stands for control group
O1 = the pretest in the experimental group
O2 = the posttest in the experimental group
O3 = the pretest in the control group
O4 = the posttest in the experimental group
X1 = Treatment with demonstration method.
X2 = Treatment with lecture method.
This was so adopted because the research intended to find out effect of the treatment (demonstration teaching method) on students’ academic performance.
Population of the Study
The population of the study comprised of all senior secondary one (SS1) students of 2020/2021 academic session in all the public secondary schools in students of Ihhitte/Uboma of Imo State. A population size of 2,278 Students was used. The choice of SS1 students for the study was based on the fact that oscillatory motion is included in the Physics curriculum for senior secondary school one (SS1) students.
Sample and Sampling Technique
A total number of one hundred (100) senior secondary school one (SS1) students were from two public secondary schools in Itu. The two pubic secondary schools were randomly selected from nine (9) existing public secondary schools in Ihhitte/Uboma using a simple random sampling technique.
The instrument adopted for this study is Physics Achievement Test (PAT) of oscillatory motion. The instrument is divided into two (2) sections, A and B. Section A contained students personal information such as name, sex, age and name of the school and test instructions while section B contained 20 well structured multiple choice questions with options letter A-D.
Validation of the instrument
A table of specification is usually used to ensure validity. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
Reliability of the Instrument
The instrumentation was initially administered to twenty (20) randomly selected SS1 students from a population who were not part of the sampled schools. To test the reliability, the split half method was used. The two set of scores were correlated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) test statistic and the PPMC value was used to compute reliability test. A reliability coefficient of 0.74 was obtained and this was considered appropriate for the study.
Scoring of Biology Achievement Test
There were twenty (20) items on the instrument. The score for each correct answer was one (1) mark and zero (0) for every wrong answers. The maximum mark obtainable was twenty (20).
A letter of permission for the research work was submitted by the researcher to the principal of the schools, who in turned granted permission for the research to be carried out one of the two schools was randomly assigned as the experimental group while the other school was assigned as the control group. The intact classes of SS1 students from both schools were given a pretest to determine the homogeneity of the classes. The test lasted for 40 minutes. The scores from the pretest was collected, marked and analyzed.
It was then found out that there was cannot difference between the two groups and hence the two groups were no significant comparable food test to both experimental and control groups. Students in the treatment commenced with the use of validated lesson notes to teach the concept of in the experimental group were taught the concept of oscillatory motion using demonstration method while students in the control group were taught the concept of oscillatory motion using lecture method; this procedure lasted for two weeks. After a contact period or one week, the researcher administered a posttest on oscillatory motion to both groups. This was done to ascertain their performance.
Method of Data Analysis
The independence t-test statistic was used for data analysis. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels of significance.
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant different between the mean performance scores of physics students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method and those taught using lecture teaching method
Table 1: t-test Analysis of mean performance scores of physics students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method and those taught using lecture teaching method
|Teaching Method||N||X||SD||df||t-cal||t-crit||Decision at P < .05|
Significant at P < 0.05
From the analysis on Table 1 above, the t-calculated value (6.29) is greater than the t-critical value (1.98) at 98 degree of freedom. The hypothesis is therefore rejected. Based on this, it can be deduced that there is a significant difference between the achievement scores of the students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration and those taught using lecture method in secondary schools. As shown from the table, since the mean (12.1) of those students taught using demonstration is greater than the mean (7.70) of those students taught using lecture method of teaching, it can be stated that those students taught using demonstration performed significantly better than those students taught using lecture method.
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of physics students by gender when taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method
Table 2: t-test Analysis of mean performance scores of physics students by gender when taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method
|Demonstration||N||X||SD||df||t-cal||t-rit||Decision at P < .05|
Not Significant at P < .05, t-cal<t-crit (0.30 < 2.02)
From the analysis on Table 2 above, the t-calculated value (0.30) is less than the t-critical value (2.02) at 48 degree of freedom. The hypothesis is therefore retained. Based on this, it can be deduced that there is no significant difference between the achievement scores of male and female students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration in secondary schools. As shown from the table, though the mean (13.8) of those male students taught using demonstration is greater than the mean (13.1) of female students taught using demonstration of teaching, from the t-test analysis it can be stated that male and female students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method perform academically better.
Hypothesis Three: There is no significant difference between mean score of physics students by ability level when taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method.
Table 3: Results of independent t-test analysis of mean score of physics students by ability level when taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method
|Teaching Methods||Ability Level||N||X||Sd||df||t-cal.||t-crit.||Decision at P < .05|
|Demonstration teaching method||48||0.54||2.01||Not-significant|
NS= Not significant at .05 level of significance
As shown in Table 3, the t-calculated value (0.54) is less than the t-critical value (2.01) at 48 degree of freedom. The hypothesis is therefore retained. Based on this, it can be deduced that there is no significant difference between mean score of physics students by ability level when taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method. As shown from the table, though the mean (13.54) of high ability level students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method is greater than the mean (12.85) of low ability level students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method, from the t-test analysis it can be stated that students taught oscillatory motion using demonstration teaching method performed significantly better in physics irrespective of their ability level.
Discussion of Result
The findings in table 1 revealed that there is a significant difference in academic performance of students taught Physics using teacher’s demonstration and those taught using conventional lecture methods in Physics in secondary schools in Ihhitte/Uboma. The major reason is that demonstration provides a cognitive bridge to lead students from abstraction to concretization of learnt concepts. This finding is in line with the observations of Patrick (2020) on teaching methods and students’ academic performance in Biology in secondary schools in Boki Local Government Area; that students taught using teacher’s demonstration performed academically better than students taught using conventional method. The researcher holds that teaching methods such as teacher’s demonstration is related to students’ academic performance in Biology in private secondary schools in Boki Local Government Area.
This finding is also in concurrence with Rahman (2020) who asserted that the group taught with demonstration method performed better than the control group which indicated the usefulness of demonstration method in teaching of sciences at secondary school level. Rahman further stressed that in view of the effectiveness of demonstration method in teaching science it may be tried in specific area of science like Biology and other level of education. This finding is in line with Ihiebulan (2020) who posited in his study on enhancing the teaching of Biology through the use of available local natural resources in secondary schools in Aba metropolis that firsthand experience in observing life around us is very important. This is in line with Chinese proverb that says “what we hear, we forget, what we see, we remember, what we take part in doing, we understand”.
From the findings, it was concluded that Physics students taught using teacher’s demonstration perform better than those taught using conventional lecture method. Also there is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught using teacher’s demonstration of teaching.
Implication of the Study
Based on the findings, is therefore implies that demonstration plays important role in the academic performance of student in Physics and other subject. It also implies that the use of demonstration raise learning from verbalization to practical makes teaching and learning interesting, easy and amusing. It also improves the competence of learners and makes learning more meaningful to students.
The following are recommendations made from the findings in this study;
- Physics teachers should incorporate demonstration method of teaching during lesson delivery in Physics.
- Physics students should participate effectively in class during teachers’ demonstrative in class.
- Government should ensure that laboratory facilities and equipment are provided in schools to aid teachers’ demonstration in class.
- School principals should ensure that the subvention provided in schools is used in procurement of Physics equipment for used by teachers during demonstration in class.
- Curriculum planners should include in the curricular of Physics teachers the type of method of instructions.
- Parents should assist in providing materials through Parents Teachers Association (PTA).
- Government should organize seminars to teachers on instructional method selection and utilization in teaching of Physics
Suggestion for further Study
(i) The researcher used a sample size of one hundred (100) students, and as such, further studies should be carried out using a large sample size.
(ii) Since the research was restricted to only one Local Government area in Imo State, it is suggested that further study on effects of students’ demonstration on academic achievement of students in Physics in Secondary Schools should be carried out in other Local Government Areas in Imo State.
- Similar study should be undertaken in other subject areas like mathematics, health education, physics, chemistry and biology.
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