The Concept of Rubrics Assessment and it Functions of to both Teachers and Students
The term “rubric” is used widely in education. In the classroom, rubric may mean a set of categories, criteria for assessment, and the gradients for presenting and evaluating learning. When grading a student’s essay, for example, a teacher may apply a rubric for its quality of organization, giving a 3 for Advanced Proficient, 2 for Proficient, and a 1 for Partially Proficient. Other criteria that could be rubrics include the use of examples, paragraph structure, grammar, and overall quality. Yet, like many terms in education, the meaning of rubric is confusing.
For example, Wiggins defines a rubric as “one of the basic tools in the assessor’s kit. . . telling us what elements matter most” (1998, p. 153). Schmoker states that a rubric “simply means a rule or guide . . . by which students’ performance or product is judged. It nails down the criteria, making them available to schools, teachers, parents, and students and providing clear direction and focus” (2006, pp. 70-71).
And Guskey explains that rubrics “are specific guidelines that can be used to describe students’ work in reading, writing, mathematics, and other content areas” (1994, p. 25). The term, apparently, can refer to almost anything: rule, guide, criterion, or description that is used to assess the progress of students in their academic subjects, as well as the grading system for assessing each criterion
A rubric is an assessment tool that has a description of the expected performance for each criterion in order to achieve a grade or certain outcomes. Rubric is a systematic method to collect data regarding knowledge and skills as stated by Churches (2015) in his study. Garfolo (2016) agreed that rubrics can be used to measure certain behaviour.
In detail, the rubric is a scale rating questionnaire with selected-response items (Haladyna & Rogriguez, 2013). The specific or standard expectations of a performance to evaluate learning outcomes (Aiken, 1996; Company et al., 2017; Stevens & Levi, 2013) are key part of the rubric as it does not only serve as a tool of assessment but also serves as a learning tool as quoted by Andrade and Du (2005). “Rubrics can teach as well as evaluate” Therefore, this obvious rubric application can benefit any discipline (Montgomery, 2002).
However, as highlighted by Company and his colleagues (2017), the overly abstract-constructed rubric will make it difficult for lecturers and students to understand the criteria. Meanwhile, e-rubric which refers to an electronic rubric or a computer-assisted rubric is a rubric that is plugged-in to an electronic platform or an electronic rubric (Anglin, Anglin, Schumann, & Kaliski, 2008). As stated by Company and colleagues (2017), e-rubric serves as a formative assessment.
The Concept of Rubrics Assessment and it Functions of to both Teachers and Students
The concept of rubric assessment
The term rubric has been used in English since the 1400s, making it as old as it is interesting. The root of rubric refers to the color red or red earth. The Oxford English Dictionary gives an example of the term used in 1607: “this marrow of a deer in sheep’s milk with rubric and soft pitch, drunk every day, helps the digestion and obstructions.” Another meaning, closer to how it is currently used in education, is the heading of a chapter or division of a book, written or printed in red ink or underlined in red for emphasis. In 1658, Phillips stated that a rubric is “a noted Sentence of any Book marked with red Letters.”( Aiken, L. R. 1996)
According to Andrade, H., & Du, Y. (2005). An assessment rubric is a scoring guide that articulates specific components and expectations for an assignment. Rubrics can be used for a variety of assignments: research papers, group projects, portfolios, and presentations. Educators today use rubric to refer to a category of behavior that can be used to evaluate performance.
The term is currently so popular that no one writing a funding proposal would ignore laying out the rubric for evaluating the program’s success. Today’s rubrics involve creating a standard and a descriptive statement that illustrates how the standard is to be achieved. For example, a rubric for judging an essay would list everything a student needs to include to receive a certain grade on that essay. Generally, the rubric also would specify what is needed to achieve different levels of performance, such as what is needed for an A, a B, etc.
Types Assessment Rubrics
According to Karkehabadi, S. (2013), There are two main types of assessment rubrics: holistic and analytic.
- Holistic rubrics assess student work as a whole, giving a single score that reflects the overall quality of the work. This type of rubric is best for tasks that require students to demonstrate a variety of skills or knowledge. For example, you could use a holistic rubric to assess a student’s presentation on a historical topic.
- The rubric might include criteria such as clarity of presentation, use of evidence, and engagement of the audience. The student’s overall score would be based on how well they met all of the criteria.
- Analytic rubrics assess student work on a more granular level, providing separate scores for different aspects of the work. This type of rubric is best for tasks that require students to demonstrate specific skills or knowledge. For example, you could use an analytic rubric to assess a student’s essay.
- The rubric might include criteria such as organization, grammar, and content. The student would receive a separate score for each criterion, and the overall score would be based on their combined performance.
In addition, Montgomery, K. (2000). Opine to these two main types, there are also a few other types of assessment rubrics.
- Developmental rubrics are designed to help students track their progress over time. Each level of the rubric describes the skills and knowledge that students are expected to have at that level. This type of rubric can be used to provide students with feedback on their work, and to help them identify areas where they need to improve.
- Checklist rubrics are a simple type of rubric that only includes a list of criteria that must be met. This type of rubric is easy to use, but it does not provide as much detail as other types of rubrics.
When choosing a rubric, it is important to consider the following factors:
- The purpose of the assessment
- The complexity of the task
- The skills and knowledge that students are expected to demonstrate
- The amount of time you have to grade the work
Rubrics can be a valuable tool for providing students with feedback on their work and helping them to improve their performance. By choosing the right type of rubric and using it effectively, you can help your students to learn and achieve their goals.
Here are the 4 levels of achievement that are commonly used in analytic rubrics:
- Mastery: The student has demonstrated complete mastery of the skills and knowledge that are being assessed.
- Proficiency: The student has demonstrated a good understanding of the skills and knowledge that are being assessed.
- Competency: The student has a basic understanding of the skills and knowledge that are being assessed.
- Novice: The student does not yet have a basic understanding of the skills and knowledge that are being assessed.
FUNCTIONS OF ASSESSMENT RUBRICS TO BOTH TEACHERS AND STUDENTS
According to Riddle, E. J., & Smith, M. (2008), Assessment rubrics are important to both teachers and students for a number of reasons. For teachers, rubrics can help to:
- Clarify expectations for student work. By clearly stating the criteria that will be used to assess student work, rubrics can help students to understand what is expected of them and how they can meet those expectations.
- Provide a more objective and consistent way to grade student work. Rubrics can help to ensure that all students are graded fairly and consistently, regardless of who is doing the grading.
- Provide feedback to students on their work. Rubrics can help students to identify their strengths and weaknesses in their work and to understand how they can improve.
- Promote self-assessment and reflection. By giving students a clear framework for self-assessment, rubrics can help students to become more active learners and to take ownership of their own learning.
For students, rubrics can be helpful for:
- Understanding the expectations for the assignment. Rubrics can help students to understand what the teacher is looking for in their work and how they can meet those expectations.
- Self-assessing their work. Rubrics can help students to identify their strengths and weaknesses in their work and to understand how they can improve.
- Getting feedback on their work. Rubrics can help students to get feedback from their teacher or peers on their work and to use that feedback to improve their learning.
- Promoting self-regulation and reflection. By helping students to self-assess and reflect on their work, rubrics can help them to become more active learners and to take ownership of their own learning.
Here are some tips for creating effective assessment rubrics:
- Be clear and specific about the criteria that will be used to assess student work.
- Use clear and concise language that students can understand.
- Use a variety of levels of achievement so that students can be accurately assessed.
- Make sure the rubric is aligned with the learning objectives of the assignment.
- Share the rubric with students before they begin working on the assignment.
- Use the rubric to provide feedback to students on their work.
Benefits of using assessment rubrics
There are many benefits to using assessment rubrics. Here are a few of the most important:
- Rubrics help to ensure that all students are assessed fairly. By clearly articulating the criteria for an assignment, rubrics help to prevent teachers from grading students subjectively.
- Rubrics can help students to improve their work. By providing students with feedback on their performance, rubrics can help them to identify areas where they need to improve.
- Rubrics can help students to take ownership of their learning. When students know what is expected of them, they are more likely to be motivated to succeed.
- Rubrics can save teachers time. By using rubrics, teachers can quickly and easily grade assignments.
How to create an assessment rubric
Here are the steps on how to create an assessment rubric:
- Identify the assignment you want to assess. What are the specific learning objectives of the assignment?
- List the criteria that will be used to assess the assignment. These criteria should be specific, measurable, and relevant to the learning objectives.
- Develop levels of achievement for each criterion. The levels of achievement should be progressive, so that students can see how their work can improve.
- Write a description for each level of achievement. The description should provide clear and concise feedback on what students need to do to achieve the level.
- Pilot the rubric with a few students. Get feedback from the students to make sure that the rubric is clear and easy to use.
- Revise the rubric as needed. Once you have collected feedback from students, revise the rubric as needed.
Here are some additional tips for creating assessment rubrics:
- Make sure that the criteria are aligned with the learning objectives of the assignment.
- Use clear and concise language when writing the criteria and descriptions.
- Use a variety of levels of achievement to allow for differentiation.
- Pilot the rubric with a few students to make sure that it is clear and easy to use.
- Revise the rubric as needed based on feedback from students.
Assessment rubrics are a valuable tool for both teachers and students. By using rubrics effectively, teachers can ensure that all students are given a fair and consistent assessment of their work, and students can get the feedback they need to improve their learning.
School leaders need to provide the time and training to help all teachers understand the purpose of rubrics and their relationship to quality teaching and learning, as well as how to design and use rubrics.
School leaders, curriculum directors, and instructional coaches need to provide exemplars so they can be reviewed, analyzed, and discussed at various faculty gatherings to help create a shared level of expectation. Educators must communicate with and educate other stakeholders about the purpose and value of rubrics in guiding student work.
Parents, business and community members, and other stakeholders should understand that, while rubrics may never replace letter and numeric grades, they do reveal considerably more about what students know and can do. In these days of national standards and accountability, teachers need to ensure their students meet certain criteria. The rubric can be used as the basic architecture for courses, assignments, and assessments to ensure that all students reach proficiency.
Aiken, L. R. (1996). Rating scales and checklists : evaluating behaviour, personality and attitudes. New York: John Wiley & Sons,Inc.
Andrade, H., & Du, Y. (2005). Student perspectives on rubric-referenced assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930801955986
Karkehabadi, S. (2013). Enhance Student Performance Why Use a Rubric ? North Virginia Community College.
Montgomery, K. (2000). Classroom rubrics : Systematizing what teachers do naturally. The Clearing House : A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 73(6), 324–328. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098650009599436
Riddle, E. J., & Smith, M. (2008). Developing and using rubrics in quantitative business courses. The Coastal Business Journal, 7(1), 82–95.