TEACHERS QUALIFICATION AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES
This research work was carried out to examine Teachers’ Qualification and Pupil’s Academic Performance in Social Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area. The target population of this study was 2,026 primary school teachers in the study area. The sample size of one hundred (100) teachers was drawn from nine public primary schools in Nsit Atai.
The instrument used for data collection was designed by the researcher to reflect the three research questions asked to guide the study. It was referred to as Teachers’ Qualification and Pupils Academic Performance Questionnaire (TQAPAQ). The simple percentage was used as the statistical tool to answer the research questions asked to guide the study.
The analysis revealed that teacher’s qualification and experience were the determinant of teacher’s effectiveness which leads to better academic performance of pupils. It was recommended among others that in-service programmes be approved for Social Studies teachers to enable them grow in the profession and gain high qualification with skills.
1.1 Background to the Study
Teaching is old as human existence on earth. It is known historically that first human infant had to learn practically everything through imitation (Ekanem, 2016). In a school setting, which is of particular concern to us, it meaning to talk about teaching as profession where there is no “specialized skill that is used in the development of formal knowledge in the learner”.
Hirst (2010) sees teaching as a type of communication. According to him, for there to be communication, there must be a communicator and a message. The teaching activity therefore logically needs a lesson, a pupil and intended response from learner and a teacher. Thus, according Eddie (2006) “a teacher occupies an important position in the teaching-learning process”.
According to Drama (2010), there is always the possibility of people influencing one another through interactive experience. Seeing the important position occupy by a teacher bring the question “who should teach”? This implies who should we call a teacher?
Answering that question, Ekanem (2006) observed that one who has the attitude to teach and who has undergone teacher training course, passed the required examinations and certified as such that is the person to be considered competent to teach in a classroom and can be addressed as a teacher.
According to teacher’s handbook of 1992, the following categories of professional teachers are recognized in Nigeria. This has been categorized into three main categories namely:
Professional Teacher I
- BA/B.Sc. plus either the NCE or post graduate certificate or diploma in education or TCII.
- Any higher degree plus teaching qualification as in (a) and (b) above.
Professional Teacher II
- NCE/NTTC or equivalent
- HND plus Teaching Qualification
- Diploma at Yaba College
- Advanced craftiful technological certificate plus TCII
- Advance commercial certificate plus N.T.T.C.
Professional Teacher III
- Diploma or professional certificate in institute of education
- Associate’s Certificate of Education
- Grade I Teacher Certificate
- Grade II Teacher Certificate
- The probed Teacher Certificate
These Registered Qualifications admit teachers into the teaching profession at various levels. To support the course of professionalism in teaching, the above is carefully outlined to give a clear picture of what teachers’ qualification is liken to in the Nigerian stand point.
According to the National Policy on Education (N.P.E.) (2004) since no education system may rise above the quality of it’s teacher, teacher education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning and development. The minimum qualification for entry into the teaching profession shall be the NCE. This means that an upgrading had taken place after the categorization first given in the teacher’s handbook.
However, while examining the factors that affect the teaching/learning process, Akinade (2006) mentioned nature of hereditary environment and school related factors. Under school related factors, school type as well as the teacher factor were mentioned. Under teacher factor, Akinade (2006) outlined the following in line with the qualification of the teacher, quality of training received by the teacher the higher the better. Relevance of teachers’ qualification to what subject the teacher teaches the more relevant the better.
Quality of his interest to the job and teacher’s attitude to work the more positive the better as opposed to truancy, lateness, absenteeism and general disinterestedness. Pertinent to note also is the fact that the qualification of a teacher in terms of certificate and how higher he has gone in the profession may not really promote teaching and learning without the expected personal qualities such as hard work, honesty, justice, fairness, self-confidence, dedication as well as resourcefulness.
Since quite a lot of serving teachers are variously certificated with designated qualification, but they still persist the issue of teacher’s effectiveness and pupil’s academic performance in various school subject. It therefore render the focus of this studies which seeks to investigate teacher’s qualification and pupils academic performance in Social Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.
TEACHERS QUALIFICATION AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Going by the contents of the National Policy on Education (NPE), concerning teacher education in Nigeria, the objectives had sought to place Nigerian education system at the level higher than what it is today. In the system, practicing teachers having NCE which is the minimum qualification were supposed to teach in the primary schools while those with first degree, masters’ degree as well as doctorate degrees were supposed to teach in secondary schools. But in most cases, reverse is the case and this affect student’s performance.
Since teacher’s qualification in Nigeria such as NCE, B.Ed, M.ED and Phd. supposedly designate attainment of level of knowledge. In other words, academic achievement of teachers in the Nigerian school system is under obligation to acquire this academic qualification to enable teacher effectiveness. As such, this study was undertaken to determine whether teachers’ qualification directly influence pupil’s academic performance in Social Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ qualification and pupil’s academic performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study seeks to:
- Measure or ascertain the effectiveness of a teacher as enhanced by his qualification and experience.
- Prove whether the pupils of Nsit Atai are taught Social Studies by qualified teachers.
- Determine whether the status of a teacher has any impact on the performance of pupils in Social Studies.
1.4 Significance of the Study
- The findings of this study will bring to light the relevant of teacher’s qualification in the teaching/learning experience in order to enable school administrators to plan school curriculum effectively.
- It will help the future researchers on the teaching/learning experience in Social Studies to have a basis to take off from.
- The result of the study will enrich the college library on the teaching-learning experience in Social Studies.
1.5 Research Questions
- Does teachers’ qualification enhances effectiveness in the teaching learning experience?
- Are the pupils learning Social Studies in Schools Nsit Atai taught by qualified teachers?
- Are the qualifications of the teachers’ teaching Social Studies in Nsit Atai as specified under the teacher’s hand book and the National Policy on Education (NPE) in Nigeria?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and the performance of pupils in Social Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.
- There is no observable influence of teachers’ qualification on pupil’s performance in Social Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.
- There is no significant relationship between the qualification of teacher’s as specified in the teachers hand book and National Policy on Education (NPE)?
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The scope of the work was under control by examining only primary schools in the study area alone. Only teachers found in schools at restriction were chosen to be respondents to be in the study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This research work suffered only one major set back which was the UN or non co-operative attitude of the respondents who were teachers. Most teachers did not respond to the questionnaire administered in the course of the study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The words below were defined according to how they were used in the contents:
Teachers’ Qualification: The status, rank or academic level of teachers in the school or educational setting.
Academic Performance: How good or bad one is doing in academic activities in the school setting or the level of success or achievement of an individual in the academic pursuit.
School: Academic institution or learning environment in which teaching and learning activities take place.
Formal Education: Education in the school setting (in the classroom).
Informal Education: Education by imitation outside the school (classroom setting).
Concept of Social Studies: The study of man and his environment.
National Policy on Education: Official document of the nation on education issues.
Learning Environment: A place where one can learn or study in a group or alone.
Teaching Profession: An aspect of one’s work whose overall task is helping others to gain knowledge.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter carries the fact discovered in the work of researcher who had written on part of this study. The literature is reviewed under sub-headings for purpose of clarity. The outlined are the sub-headings:
- The concept of teaching as a profession in Nigeria
- The role expectation of a professional teacher
- Teachers’ qualification effectiveness and pupil’s performance in schools
- Contributive factors to teachers’ qualification for effectiveness of lesson.
- Summary of Literature Review
- Theoretical Framework