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The Theme of Superstitious Belief in Bayo Adebowale Faceless and Amma Darko Lonely Days

The Theme of Superstitious Belief in Bayo Adebowale Faceless and Amma Darko Lonely Days 

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The major focus of this research is on superstitious belief and exploitation. It  should however, be born in mind that whenever they occur in the society they take various ways and forms according to the needs and aspiration of the people in the larger Nigeria and Africa as a whole.

Bayo Adebowale’s faceless and Amma Darko’s “lonely Days” are used as those texts that exampled and exposes the vices of superstitious belief, humiliation, exploitation and struggle for survival in the domains of the Africans. In this regard, the maxist approach is used as the general background of the study. In a nutshell, it was concluded that collective struggle can only be the solution to the leaders domination. Summary was made and recommendations of the study were given.



1.1   Background to the Study

Superstitious beliefs and exploitation are the major focus of this research. It should however be born in mind that whenever they occur in the society they take various ways and forms according to the needs and aspiration of the people in the larger society and indeed Africa as world.

Superstitious beliefs as we all know is a belief in which a particular events happen in a way that cannot be explained or bring good or bad woman to belief or accept a particular thing.

In many parts of the African society today, superstition beliefs, humiliation, exploitation and struggle for survival has eaten deep into the heart of the Africans. This has become an important problem that requires urgent solution

Bayo Adebowales lonely Days and Amma Darko’s Facaless are exemplified as those texts that expose the vices of superstitious beliefs, humiliation, exploitation and struggle for survival in the domain of the Africans

In regard the maxis tm sees the African society has been perpetuated in conflict. Applying this to Bayo Adebowale’s lonely Days and Amma Darko’s Faceless, one will find the work fitting in to the frame work of maxism.

Maxism by a way is derived from German philosopher, Karl Mark whose theory about the African society is a ncall to over flow dictatorship of the Africans or men (the exploiters) and force the women.

Therefore, revolution serves as one of the element of maxism. Other element includes protest against violence and struggle for survival of all kind.

The Theme of Superstitious Belief in Bayo Adebowale Faceless and Amma Darko Lonely Days

Adebowale’s lonely Days deflect the physical by the men. Violence is manifested in the work in terms of hunger, poverty, exploitation, humiliation and struggle for survival by men.

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Yareemi the heroine of the novel serves as a clear victim by the state of superstitious beliefs.

Similarly, in Amma Darko’s faceless the heroine of the novel is Baby T which also a victim of superstious beliefs, exploitation.

Baby T is humiliated and beaten by poison (the street boy) because Baby T was flatly refuses to sleep with Onko who looks for public hair, a female vital part as ingredients needed to rejuvenate his business and because of this, poison the street lord beat Baby T to comma. Baby dies as a result of the beating. It is against this back drop that this research work shall examine the theme of superstitious beliefs in Bago Adebowale’s lonely Days and Amma Darko’s faceless.

1.2   Statement of the problem

It is quit disheartening and unfortunate to have observed over the years that the African society is still being riddled with superstitious belief, exploitation, in spite of numerous functions performed by literature in our schools system to sanitize the society of these vices. All facet of human society is affected with these vices ranging from the traditional, culture and socio-economic aspect of human lives.

Regrettably, the curt of the matter is that so many people in the world today, view superstitious beliefs and exploitation as a necessary shortcut for taking advantage on the widows in a particular family.

Therefore, it is against this background of pervasive exploitation and superstitious beliefs and its effect on the women and the entire society in general that the researcher is wholly committed, to carrying out the research study in order to probe into the literary works with the view to identifying, and exposing how the study of literature in schools can serve as a panacea to superstitious belief and exploitation in our society.

1.3   Significance of the study

The study is significant because of the following reasons.

  1. It will serve as a panacea to the prevalent problems of superstitious beliefs, humiliation, exploitation, struggle for survival and other vices in our society.
  2. It will help to promote the interest of the students, teachers, school guidance, counselors and the entire African society in literary studies.
  3. It will help educational administrators and planners in selecting textbooks that are depleted with moral lessons to learners.
  4. It will help the teachers of the subject in the choice of instructional materials for the lesson and also enable them utilize the materials properly.
  5. It will help or serve as a stepping stone to students in the department of English and literary studies who may wish to carry out further research on this topic to do so with ease.
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1.4   Purpose of the study

The study intends to do the following:

  1. Explore, identify and expose the role of literature as a panacea to superstitious beliefs and exploitation.
  2. Enumerate useful criteria for sanitizing the African society of vices such as superstitious beliefs and exploitation.
  3. Examine critically and expose the factors responsible for superstitious beliefs and exploitation in our school and the African society at large.
  4. The study is limited to Address issues and proffer reliable solutions.


The study is limited to two prose works by Bayo Adebowale’s lonely Days and Amma Darko’s faceless. The research work sets out to explore the theme of superstitious belief in Bayo Adebowale’s lonely Days and Amma Darko’s faceless.

1.6   Research Methodology

The study will be mainly literary based research.  The two text chosen as a case study will be used as primary sources while other information from the internet, published and unpublished articles, Journals, copied of earlier project from the library and other related sources will be examined.

1.7   Bio-Data of the Authors


Bayo Adebowale was born in Adeyipo village, lagelu Local Government Area of Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. On 6th June 1944, to a peasant farmer and traditional drummer, Alagba Ayanlads Aladipupo Akangbe Adebowale. His mother madam Abigail Ayannihun atunwa Adebowale is a traditional Rara chanter and dancer, who hails from nergbouring Apon Onilu village, Oyo state.

Bayo Adebowale attended St. Andrew’s kindergarten school at Kufi 1 village. And St. Andrew’s senior primary school, Bawgbola, igbo- Elerin District of Ibadan, where he obtain his Grade A primary school leaving certificate in December, 1955. Thereafter, he was admitted to the local Authority secondary Modern school, Aperin, Ibadan, between 1956 and 1958. In 1959, he becomes a pupil teacher at ST. Mathias Primary school, Busogboro, olugole local government Area, Ibadan.

The need to be trained as a teacher took him to llesa where he was admitted to St. Peter’s Grade 111 Teacher collage between 1960 and 1961. He was headmaster of St. Micheal’s Primary school, Eko-Ajula, near Ikirun, Osun state, from January 1962 to December 1964. He was transferred to head another school in 1965 –ST. Andrew’s Primary school, Liawe, three miles from Ifon, Osun state.

In 1966 the year of Nigerian’s military coup, Bayo Adebowale gained admission to Baptist collage, Ede for his higher elementary Grade 11 Teacher Training programme,  which his finished in 1967 with merit in ten subjects, including English  language  English literature and music.

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At Baptist collage, Ede, Adebowale’s creativity boomed. He was a collage house prefect, the secretary literary and Debating society, and the editor of the collage magazine, the Echo. He was a voracious reader of English and African novels, an ardent reader of the works of great writers.

Bayo Adebowale’s creative ebullience was kept alive as a higher Elementary (H.E) teacher at Baptist school, Afolabi Apasan (near Aroani Akanran)  Ibadan, between 1968 and 1970 and also at Ibadan city council Primary school, Agugu, between 1970 and 1971. In October, 1971, he was admitted to read English at the University of Ibadan, having passed his General certificate of Education (GCE) at both the ordinary and the Advanced levels, between 1968 and 1971.

He graduated Bachelor of Arts (Hon.) English in 1974 and had his national youth service corps at ST. Augustine’s Teacher’s Collage, Lafia, Benice-Plateau State, Northern Nigeria, from July 1974 to July 1975.

Today, Bayo Adebowale is most well-known as a novelist.  His first novel, the virgin, has been adapted into two home videos under the tittles. Of white Handkerchief” and later as a thirteen week national Television serial under yet another  title” the narrow path” all by the main frame film organization of Lagos under the directorate of the ace Nigerian cinematographer-Tunde Kelani, Adebowale’s second novel, out of his mind has several times also been adapted for the stage.

Both novels have been used by researchers as Final-year long essay projects in collages of Education, and for the Bachelor of Arts degree Final-year research and for Master of Arts dissertation in Nigerian universities. His third novel, lonely days is probably his most ambitious literary Endeavour to date. The novel predictably a deal with an important aspect of the African culture-widowhood-and has its setting, predictably also, in African rural environment. Adebowale has two other yet to be published novels.

1.7.2  Amma Darko

Amma Darko was born in Koforidua, Ghana, and grew up in Accra. She studied in Kumasi, where she received her diploma in 1980. The she worked for the science and technology centre in Kumasi. During the 1980s, she lived and worked for some time in Germany.

She has since returned to Accra. His novels illustrate everyday life in Ghana. Her first novel, Beyond the Horizon, was originally published in German. Her most recent novels faceless and not without flowers, were published in Ghana.

Mr. Harrison

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