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Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary School

Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary School

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This study investigates the effect of improvised materials utilization and performance of students in Biology in Etinan Local Government Area. To guide the study, two (2) research questions and two (2) hypotheses were formulated. Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was used for the study. The population consisted of all senior secondary school two students in Etinan Local Government Area. The sample size was 100 students drawn from.

Four secondary schools in the study area. Quasi experiment design was used for the study. Data were collected through BAT and analyzed using mean to answer the research questions and independent t-test to answer the research hypotheses. The result of the findings shows that improvised materials have influence on the academic performance of the students in biology.

It was also revealed that there is significant influence of male students taught with improvised materials to the female students taught with improvised materials. It was recommended among others that teachers should be encouraged by both the school authority and government to improvise instructional material where the real ones are not available.



1.1   Background to the Study

The importance of improvised materials in the teaching and learning of biology cannot be over-emphasized. Infant successful implementation of biology curriculum depends on the quality and quantity of improvised materials available to teachers and students for use in schools. Improvised materials stimulate learners’ interest; help both the teachers and learners to overcome some limitations during presentation of subject maters.

According to Eya (2004), improvised materials enhance learning and make it more pleasurable. They are use as checks to teachers’ knowledge and means of transmission. Improvised materials help teachers to guide, co-ordinate, supervised and have enough time for correction thereby bringing variety in the classroom situation.

Instructional material consists of variety of equipments and materials used for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self activity on the part of the pupils or students. This equipment includes chalkboard, real objects, models, pictures, charts, television, computers, textbooks project, and non projected materials etc.

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Usman (2002) explain that instructional materials make the lessons captivating, for instance, Biology teacher can describe atom as consisting of electrons, protein and neutron but it is very hard to tell the student exactly what an atom looks like without a picture for clarity. This picture of an atom is an instructional material which helps the students to understand the lesson easily.

Improvised materials have found to enhance the quantity of the learning experience for learners in many ways. It helps students participate in the learning process and as well create a more relaxed learning environment. They provide storage banks for information that can easily be retrieved and in the classroom, lkpe (2009).

In spite of the importance of improvised materials, availability and adequacy of instructional materials for teaching and learning of biology posed a problem; this is because the supply of improvised materials is affected by the level of fondling of education. In this country, population explosion of students and accessibility to local materials constitute a problem of improvised materials.

Also the ability of government to support the necessary instructional materials to schools constitutes a problem. Lack of these materials, hamper the teaching and learning of biology. In an attempt to reduce abstract concept, improvised materials becomes indispensable.

Naobi (2004) reported that improvisation is an act of using materials obtainable from the local environment or design by the teacher or with the help of local personnel to enhance instruction.

Improvisation helps the teacher to think and research for cheaper, better, and faster method of making the teaching and learning process easier for students’ thereby promoting creativity and self reliance. Improvised materials are a solution to unavailability and inadequacy of instructional materials in schools and helps facilitate the teaching and learning processes.


Improvised Material Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology in Secondary School

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The growing numbers of failure in biology in public examination in recent time among our secondary schools students have become a cause of concern and have raised doubt on the effect of improvised materials utilized by teachers in schools. There is need to carry out study using an improvised materials whereby students will be helped to become active learners rather than passive learners. 

1.3   Purpose of the study

The study is aimed at assessing the effect of improvised materials utilization on academic performance. The study intends to

  1. Assess the effect of improvised materials on the student’s academic performance in biology.
  2. Investigate the effect of improvised materials on the students’ gender and academic performance in biology.

1.4   Significant of the study

The outcome of the study will be of immense benefit to a lot of people.

  1. It will benefit the teachers who will realize the importance of improvised materials play on the students’ academic performance. They have to improvise where these materials are not available.
  2. The students themselves would realize that the improvised materials enhance understanding and contribute positively to their learning. This is because what they see and feel or touch is retained and reproduce when needed. Having realized it importance they will always be ready to partake in the production of improvised materials when called upon to do so by the teachers.
  3. The school authority will benefit from the study. This is because by the time it is known that improvised materials enhance good learning performance, the teachers will be encourage to improvised when the original one is not available.
  4. The government will benefit from this study by realizing the importance of improvised materials in teaching and learning. 
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1.5   Research Question

The following questions where formulated to guide the study;

  1. To what extent do improvised materials influence student’s Performance in biology?
  2. How do male and female students taught with improvised Materials differ in their academic performance?

1.6   Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant different in academic performance of students taught using improvised materials and those taught without using improvised materials in biology
  2. There is no significant different in academic performance of male and female students in biology taught using improvised materials. 

1.7   Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to the following improvised materials utilization and academic performance of students in biology, only secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area, where involve in the study and only students who registered biology for 2015/2016 academic session in senior secondary two (SS2) where use in the study 

1.8   Limitation of the study

This study on improvised materials utilization and student’s academic performance, several problems are encountered in undertaking this research work namely:

Financial Constraint: insufficient fund tends impede the efficient of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials.

Time constraint: the researcher was simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently cut down the time devoted for the research work

1.9   Operational definition of terms

Improvisation: This is a process of obtaining materials from the Local environment design by a teacher or student to enhance effective learning.

Academic performance: this means ones level of progress in the school subjects to a score in test, assignments and examination.

Biology: biology is the study of life and living organism.

Student: a person formally engage in learning especially one enroll in a school or college

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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