The Impact of Teaching Techniques and Academic Performance in Economics among Secondary School Students
It is an indisputable fact that teaching as old as human existence on earth. Human beings are constantly involved in the process of teaching and learning be it consciously or unconsciously, formally or informally in everyday life. Before the advent of discern Education in Nigeria in the 19th century by the Missionaries, there was in existence the traditional system of education in which some form of knowledge of certain sort had to be imparted from one individual or group to another.
This enterprise had to be carried out by some agents referred to as teachers who were knowledgeable in their various areas of specialization. Teaching therefore, involves the passing of knowledge and skills to a learner or group of learners, in such a way the learners are brought to the understanding of what is being taught to them.
However, the improvement of students’ academic performance in Schools is associated with the choice of appropriate instructional approaches by the teacher. There is no doubt therefore, that the attainment of instructional goals and objectives as well as the desired improvement in students’ academic performance in different school subjects will be a mirage if the teaching techniques adopted by the teacher are inappropriate to the teaching learning situation.
Accordingly, teaching goes beyond more provision of knowledge to the learners, it involves development of the entire human beings such that the individuals can contribute their quota to the development of the society. Many parents find it difficult to teacher their children, because they may not be able to translate information in curriculum, syllabus, and scheme of work into unit plan and lesson note. Teaching is effectively carried out by a professional teacher who has the background knowledge and proper skills in the presentation of lesson to the learners (Okwilagwe, 2008).
It is increasingly becoming more difficult to be an effective teacher today than ever before, thus is because the demands of the learners are more complex and varied than before. A teacher is not only expected to be vast in book, knowledge and impart same to the learners, he must also know his learners. Capability, be conversant with the complexity of the teaching-learning environment and adopt methods and techniques most suitable for a particular teaching-learning situation.
Essentially, the goal of all teachers is to enhance their effectiveness in the classroom. Effectiveness in teaching will be an illusion if appropriate methods and techniques are not adopted before teachers. Therefore, any teaching-learning encounter is often geared at changing the behavior of the learners through the selection of appropriate instructional techniques.
Here, the role of the teacher goes beyond a person talking and writing on the chalk-board, but an organizer and planner, less pre-occupied with what he will teach but more concerned with how he will teacher what he has to teach to the learners (Ekanem, 2006). At this point the question he will ask himself is “How can I ensure full understanding of instruction by the students in order to improve their academic performance?”
To this end, it becomes imperative for teachers to select and apply appropriate instructional techniques in the teaching-learning process to facilitate students’ understanding of instructional vis–a–viz their academic performance.
- Statement of the Problem
It is an indisputable fact their one of the challenges facing the teaching-learning process in schools over the years is the dwindling academic performance of students both in internal and external examinations. The poor academic of students in school has become an intractable problem in our educational system and it is fast becoming a recurring decimal especially in public examinations. This ugly .development has been a subject of concern to stake-holders in education.
Worried by the continuous decline in students’ academic performance in schools, parents have put the blame on teachers for their low level of commitment on the discharge of their professional duties while teachers in turn point accusing finders at the government for the falling standard of Education in the country. True as this accusation may be, one cannot rule out the fact teachers occupy an important position in the teaching-learning process. Hence, the success or failure of students in schools depends to a large extent on them.
However, it was been observed among scholars that most teachers in schools having been using unspiring and inappropriate instructional techniques to impact knowledge to their students. They rely on methods and techniques that are easy but mostly inappropriate to the instructional process.
There is no gain saying that the realization of the dream of improving the quality of teaching-learning process if teachers fail to adopt instructional techniques most suitable to a particular subject matter which will equally facilitate students understanding of what is taught. It is against this background therefore, that this study “Teaching Techniques and Academic Performance in Economics Among Secondary School students in Uyo Local Government Area” becomes imperative.
- Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study was to examines teaching techniques and academic performance in Economics among Secondary School Students in Uyo Local Government Area.
The Specific objectives include to:
- Examine if students taught with demonstration instructional technique differ from their counterparts taught with lecture instructional technique in Economics.
- Examine if students taught with activity based instructional technique differ from their counterparts taught with discussion instructional technique in Economics.
- Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in line with the specific objectives of the study.
- Do students taught with demonstration instructional technique differ from their counterparts taught with lecture instructional technique in Economics?
- Do students taught with activity based instructional technique differ from their counterparts taught with discussion instructional technique in Economics?
- Significance of the Study
It is anticipated their the findings of this study would be of immense benefits to all and sundry in the educational sector particularly, teachers, school administrators, educational planners and policy makers, students, parents and the government at large in the following ways:
- It would make known the instructional techniques adopted by Economics teachers in the study area.
- It would bring into focus the instructional techniques that best guarantee improvement in students’ understanding of instructional and academic performance.
- It would help curriculum planners to incorporate appropriate instructional techniques into the Economics curriculum to enhance the teaching effectiveness of teachers and improve students’ academic achievement.
- It would add to the body of existing literature on instructional techniques in relation to students’ academic performance.
- Finally, it would serves as a spring-board and a reference materials for further research on instructional techniques and students’ academic performance not only in Economics but other school subjects.
- Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated in line with the specific objectives of the study:
- Students taught with demonstration instructional technique do not significantly differ from their counterparts taught with lecture instructional technique in Economics.
- Students taught with activity based instructional technique do not significantly differ from their counterparts taught with discussion instructional technique in Economics.
- Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to instructional technique and students’ academic performance in Economics in Uyo Local Government Area. The instructional techniques considered in the study includes:
Analysis was on senior Secondary Two (SSS2) Students in the study area.
- Limitation of the Study
The major factors that limit the scope of the study to Uyo Local Government Area were insufficient funds, the researcher’s academic work load and the time frame for the completion of the research and submission of reports.
- Operational Definition of Terms
Instructional Techniques: The different teaching approaches adopted by teachers in lesson delivery.
Demonstration techniques: A teaching technique which involves the act of showing or explaining how something works or is done.
Lecture Techniques: An instructional technique where the teacher does all or most of the talking with the students hardly participating in class discussion.
Activity Bases Techniques: An instructional technique where the teacher provides an avenue for students to carry out some activities under the supervision and guidance of the teacher.