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Housing Problems in Nigeria a Case Study OF Uyo Metropolis Akwa Ibom State

Housing Problems in Nigeria a Case Study OF Uyo Metropolis Akwa Ibom State

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1.1       Background of Study

Housing is a basic need of every human being just as food and clothing. It is very fundamental to the welfare, survival and health of man (Fadamiro, Taiwo and Ajayi, 2004). Hence, housing is one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living and his place in the society. According to Eldredge [1967], housing represents a bundle of goods and services which facilitate and enhance good living, and a key to neighbourhood quality and preservation.

Likewise, Agbola [1998], notes that housing is combination of characteristics which provide a unique home within any neighbourhood; it is an array of economic, social and phychological phenomena. In other word, housing could be seen as a multidimensional package of goods and services extending beyond shelter itself. It is widely acknowledged that adequate housing is essential for good life, is a key requirement for an efficient and satisfied labour force and the foundation of satisfactory community life. In developing countries, poor housing delivery has been attributed to inadequate mechanism and system for land allocation, funding, mortgage institutionand infrastructure (Encarta, 2007).

Shelter is central to the existence of men (kehinde,2010); He also stated that housing involves access to land, shelter and the necessary amenities to make the shelter functional, convenient, aesthetically pleasing, safe and hygienic. According to him unsanitary, unhygienic, unsafe and inadequate housing can affect the security, physical health and privacy of man.

Housing Problems in Nigeria a Case Study OF Uyo Metropolis Akwa Ibom State

Okafor (2016) asserted that housing all over the world has remained an interdependent phenomenon that face mankind and it represents one of the most basic human needs which no doubt has a profound impact on the health, welfare and productivity of every individual irrespective of social-economic status’ colour or creed. Housing problems one of the social problems bred by capitalism manifested as a particular form of housing need with the growth of the urban population and the transformation of a dwelling into a commodity; there is a sharp deteriorationin the working people`s living conditions and huge rise in apartment (The great soviet Encyclopedia, 2000).

Nigeria is perhaps the fastest urbanizing country in African continent. One of the most important challenges facing the country is the provision of affordable housing. As more and more Nigerians make towns and cities their homes, the resulting social, economic, environmental and political challenges need to be urgently addressed (Raji, 2008). A recent study of housing situations in Nigeria put existing housing stock at 23 per 1000 inhabitant. Housing deficit is put at 5million houses (Mabogunje 2004) while 12 trillion will be required to finance deficit.

This is about 4 times the annual national budget of Nigeria (fHA2007). According to Human Development Nigeria (2000), housing problems result mainly from unprecedented growth of urban population. In Nigeria, according to this source, the states with largest proportions of urban dwellers far in excess of the national average are Lagos (94%), Oyo (69%), Rivers (60%), Anambra(62%) and Uyo(60%). However, prices and rents, on the other hand has grown ahead of general inflation. Making matters worse, the composition of houses for sale and rent on the market has been inexorably shifting towards very expensive house (Nubi. 2008)

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The problem of adequate housing is not peculiar to Nigeria. According to the UN habitat 30 percent of the world’s urban population lives in slums, deplorable conditions where people suffer from one or more of the following basic deficiencies in their housing; lack of access to improved water, lack of access to improved sewage facilities (not even on out house); living in over- crowded conditions; living in buildings that are structurally unsound; or living in a situation with no security oftenure (that is, without legal rights to be where they are, as renters or as owners).

Housing Problems in Nigeria a Case Study OF Uyo Metropolis Akwa Ibom State

The same report says that 35 percent of the world’s rural population lives in unacceptable conditions. Overall more than two billion people are in desperate need of better housing (Enoghase, S.; Airahuobhour, S.Oladunjoye, P; Okwuke, A Ogunwusi; Band Bakare, S. 2015).

According to the former Minister of Lands and Housing, MrsAkon Eyakenyi; a major impediment to construction of housing units in Nigeria however, is the high cost of land. To meet Nigeria’s need of 17 million housing units would require at the minimum about 17 million plots of land. When converted to a more common units to approximately 11,470 square kilometer, roughly the size of Rivers State, or three times the size of Lagos state ( , 2015).

In as much as decent housing is important to every individual, society and nation, housing crisis remains one of the global problems confronting both urban and rural dwellers, particularly in most developing countries such as Nigeria. It is a serious and rising challenge which has become defiant to official and private interventions. Thus, in spite of several political, social and religious initiatives taken in the past toward improving housing supply in some of these developing countries, a great proportion of their population still dwell in substandard and poor houses. Therefore, this research is focused on Identification of Housing Problems in Nigeria using Uyo as Case study.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The importance of housing to man remains an incontrovertible fact; that housing is second to food, in the basic needs of man is generally becoming old fashioned as some schools of thought are now saying give us house and we will take care of food (sustainable cities programme, Egypt, 2003).

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The problem of housing shortage grows worse by the day in many developing nations including Nigeria, conceivably major tract of housing crisis notable in urban centersin most developing nations is that of inadequate supply relative to demand (Olutuah, 2000). According, to him the shortage, in both quantitative and qualitative terms is more acute in urban centers. Omojinmi (2000) observed that people who sleep in indecent urban Nigeria are more than people who sleep in decent houses; thus, it is ascertain that there is inadequacy in population in Nigeria (Arayela, 2003).

Government drive toward housing for all as contained in the National Housing Policy, which aims to provide affordable housing for all, has so far not been achieved and no serious efforts are being made towards implementation as it continues to be an illusion and frustration to the larger population (Adejumo, 2008). The failure has been partly attributed to the lack of political will and poor implementation (Adejumo, 2008).

Uyo metropolis is an important commercial center in Niger Delta Nigeria. Its strategic location in the region of Nigeria led to its population growth primarily through Immigration from the surrounding rural areas. The rapid urbanization and industrialization growth in Uyo results in shortage of housing and other related problems including associated infrastructure which have compound housing problems over the years. Thus, there is need to identify housing problems as none of the works reviewed handled this, and by this identification be able to tackle the problem of housing and proffer lasting solutions.

Housing Problems in Nigeria a Case Study OF Uyo Metropolis Akwa Ibom State

1.3   Aims of the Research

The aim of this research is to identify housing problems in Nigeria with special reference to Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State.

1.4   Objectives

  • To identify housing problems in Uyo metropolis.
  • To examine National Housing Policy implementation.
  • To identify challenges of low income earners in achieving housing ownership
  • To find out hindrances to private sector participation in housing delivery.

1.5       Research Question

  • What are the housing problems in Uyo metropolis?
  • What are the best possible strategies towards implementing housing policy

and the negative and positive impact of implementing housing policy?

  • What are the tool that could be used to improve public finance in housing delivery?
  • Are they any negative and positive impacts of private sector on housing delivery?

1.6       Significance of the Study

The study findings will be of benefits to the estate surveyors and valuers and property owners; as will reveal the important strategies necessary for overcoming the challenges before them. The industry stakeholder such as client, Architect, Estate Surveyors and Valuers, Builder and government will better understand the constraint and also assist in mapping out strategies that will aid their development.

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The government and stakeholders will be better informed through study recommendation of policy which will assist the property managers and owners in boosting their ability and capacity to quality housing delivery process.

Moreover, the research work can as well be a guide for the incoming students who wants to research on housing or any matter related to housing.

Housing Problems in Nigeria a Case Study OF Uyo Metropolis Akwa Ibom State

1.7       Scope of Study

The scope of this study is based on identifying housing problems in Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State.

1.8       Research Area

1.8.1 Location

Uyo is a capital city of Akwa Ibom State in South- South Nigeria. It is located 5.05 latitude and 7.93 longitudes and it is situated at elevation 45 meters above sea level. Uyo is bound by Uruan Local Government Area in the East, Itu, Ibiono Ibom and Ikono Local Government areas in the North, Abak Local Government area in the West, and Etinan, Nsit Ibom and Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Areas in the South.

1.8.2 Population

The population of Uyo, according to 2006 National population census, Uyo Local Government Area was put at the population of 305,961, with 155,698 males and 150,263 females.

1.8.3 Climate

This city has a tropical climate. Rainfall is significant most months of the year, and the short dry season has little effect. This location is classified as Am by Koppen and Geiger. The average annual temperature in uyo is 26.4 degrees Celsius. The rainfall here averages 2500mm.

1.8.4 People and Economic Activities:

The increased relative political influence of Uyo as a state capital since 1987 has greatly promoted its rapid growth and increased socio- economic activities. The economic base of the city is that of civil service, although private enterprises in the city have increased in the past few years due to the current privatization drive of the government.

Uyo local government is made-up of 11 wards and these wards are as follows; Etoi I, Etoi II, Ikono I, Ikono II, Offot I, Offot II, Oku I, Oku II, Uyo Urban I, Uyo Urban II, Uyo Urban III. The people of Uyo by way of worship are predominantly Christians. They believe in the existence of one Supreme Being. Outside this, there are several traditional practices with their unique shrines for their various deities. Some of such deities are associated with each of the four clans that make up Uyo Local Government Area viz “Etefia” of Ikono Clan, The “AfiaEtoi” of Etoi Clan, “ Udu Oku” of Oku Clan and the “UkanaOffot” of Offot Clan.

Housing Problems in Nigeria a Case Study OF Uyo Metropolis Akwa Ibom State

Mr. Harrison

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