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Teachers Variables on Preprimary Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies

Teachers Variables on Preprimary Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies

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1.1     Background to the Study

The teacher is the major man power saddled with the responsibility of impacting the concept considered fundamental to human existence through teaching. The teacher  is the pivot upon which the educational process revolves Sampson (2010) this is because the teacher is expected to have what the learners do not have and should be able to cause the learners under him or her to always desire to increase their want to what the teacher has until they are almost like the teacher.

Based on the definition of teaching by Ekanem (2006) as simply the art of helping others learn effectively and Emah (2010) as a deliberate effort to impart knowledge before meaningful learning can take place. To Ekanem (2006) learning involves a permanent change in the behaviors of a person exposed to a learning situation. This change is usually in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.

Education is globally regarded as a basic human right, a key to enlightenment, and a source of wealth and power (Mugenda, 2009). Education is critical to industrial and technological development, with the history of developed nations bearing records of this developing nations aspiring to realize the same status have to put a premium.

UNESCO (1986) indicates that knowledge holds key to the attainment of the millennium development goals, which include, food, security, eradication of child mortality, and reduction of the spread of HIV and AIDs among others. Ani (2009) observes that there was statistically significant relationship between teachers’ variables and pupils’ academic performance. Adeyemo (2007) notes teacher variables influenced teaching and learning in classroom.

Olaleye (2012) establishes that there was relationship between teachers variables and pupils performance in social studies. Gacestock and Gregor (2008) states that the explanations for food or poor pupils’ performance have been quite exhaustive yet controversy still exist among scholars as to what contribute singly or jointly to pupils’ performance. The teachers’ variables found to be dominant in cross-country studies are related to; qualification, work value, experience, attitude, teaching method and personality among others. Akinsolu (2010) asserts that availability of qualified teacher determined the performance of pupils in schools.

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Teachers Variables on Preprimary Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies

Coonen (2007) emphasizes that teachers involved in in-service training were more effective in classrooms as compared to teachers who had not undergone training. Wirth and Perkins (2013) indicate that teacher’s attitude contributes significantly to pupils’ attention in classroom whereas Adeseji and Olatundun (2003) illustrate that pupils attitude was related to teachers variables.

This therefore meant that teacher’s attitude directly affect pupil’s attitude. Scholars and researchers generally are in agreement that the school variables which include teacher administration perform a critical role in educational achievement than other variable (Patrick, 2008). The important role of the teachers in the learning process is unquestionable. Teachers have a lot of influence on their classroom practices. For pupils to be able to make connection between what is taught in school and its application in problem solving in real life, the teacher has to be effective in their teaching.   

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Poor academic performance of pupils in Nigeria has been linked to poor teachers’ performance in term of accomplishing the teaching task, negative attitudes to work and poor teaching habits which have been attributed to poor motivation Ofoegbu (2011).

It has been observed that conditions that would make for effective teacher such as resource available to teachers, general condition of infrastructure as well as instructional materials in public pre-primary school are poor (Oredein, 2009) these prevailing conditions would definitely show a negative influence on the instructional quality in public schools which may translate to poor academic performance, attitude and values of public primary school teachers.

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of teachers’ variables on pre-primary pupils’ academic performance in social studies.

Specifically, the study aims at:

(i)  Examine the extent to which teachers’ professional qualification affect pupils academic performance pupils in social studies.

(ii)  Assess the impact of teachers’ teaching experience on pupils’ academic performance in social studies.

1.4     Significance of the Study

The study will be significant in the following ways:

(i)   It will help in sensitizing teachers on the need to examine their variables towards the teaching and learning of social studies in pre-primary schools.

(ii)  It will help government on the need to provide adequate instructional materials for the teaching and learning of the subject.

(iii) It will help serve as reference materials top other educators and researchers who may want to carry out research in the same or similar topic. 

Teachers Variables on Preprimary Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies

1.5     Research Question

The following research questions were generated to guide the study.

(i)   What is the relationship between teachers’ qualification and pupils’ academic performance in social studies?

(ii)  To what extent does teacher’s year of experience affect the academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in social studies in Abak Local Government Area?

1.6     Research Hypotheses

In order to guide the study the following research hypotheses were postulated:

(i)   There is no significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in social studies.

(ii)  There is no significant relationship between teachers’ years of experience and pupils’ academic performance in social studies.

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1.7     Limitation of the Study

Time-frame and shortage of finance were the major limitations to this research also the inability of the researcher to cover the whole public primary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State as the topic suggested also posed a threat to the study. 

Teachers Variables on Preprimary Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies

1.8     Definition of Terms

Teacher:  Is a person involves in an attempt to bring about desirable changes in human learning ability and behaviour.

Variables:  Refers to all those qualities a person possesses that can be use to describe him or her.

Academic Performance: This is referred to the outcome of result a learner received at the end of academic session.

Pupils: this is an individual or a person who undergo studies in primary or nursery school.

Pre-Primary School: May be defined as education given to a child or children at the age of 3 to 5 in an educational institution.



This chapter deals with the review of different work relating to teachers’ variables and pre-primary school pupils academic performance in social studies. Generally, the chapter is arranged under the following sub-headings.

  • The concept “teacher variable”
  • Teachers’ qualification and pre-primary school academic performance
  • Teachers’ experience and pre-primary school pupils academic performance
  • Teachers’ teaching method and pre-primary school academic performance

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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