Project Materials

FEMINIST AETHESTIC IN OLA ROTIMI OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN AND FEMI OSOFISAN MOROUNTODUN

FEMINIST AETHESTIC IN OLA ROTIMI OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN AND FEMI OSOFISAN MOROUNTODUN

DISCOUNT Sales!!! GET COMPLETE  PROJECT MATERIAL FROM US TODAY AT A DISCOUNT PRICE OF 50% WHICH IS  ₦1500 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 08127963962

ABSTRACT

This research project deals with the cultural influence on women emancipation, which is the concept of feminism as worldwide theory, ideology and political movement directed at changing the existing power relation between man and woman. This work attempt on re-analysis of gender equality from the pre-colonial to post- colonial period and also reveal how the themes of gender discrimination, exploitation, and hardship is carefully handled in Femi Osofisan’s Morountodun and Ola Rotimi’s Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again.

The works identified the sociolinguistic factors such as age, gender, religion, education, occupation and culture as factors affecting the use of language in terms of what one says and how it is concerning feminism. It also identified the numerous forces militating against the right of African women especially in the traditional setting and blamed them on some cultural beliefs and customs which are destructive enough to keep women perpetually at the background. The study has shown that as long as men wield power, women will continue to be subjugated, oppressed and suppressed. 

FEMINIST AETHESTIC IN OLA ROTIMI OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN AND FEMI OSOFISAN MOROUNTODUN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Feminism as a literary theory is an ideology, which tends towards female liberation in the society. According to Joseph, Feminism as an ideology of social commitment to the struggle for female liberation in the society through conscious and collective effort (199)

Feminist criticism precedes from the assumption that “the history of all the societies is the history patriarch of male domination and exploitation of women” a situation, which has hindered the actualization of women’s possibilities aid potentials in all fields of human Endeavour. (19)

Women all over the world are crying for liberation of their identity, women are only seen but not to be heard, due to the believe that they are weaker set, men take over every aspect of life there by subjecting women to domestic slave, Feminism  like a maximum is concerned about societal inequalities. It is also a literary ideology founded on the need to develop a female tradition of creative to cause awareness on the high of women as the oppressed, deprived subjected and unfulfilled gender according to Obioma.

Women should not be seen as objects to decorate the homes but they should be regarded as major contributors to the destiny of the nation without really affecting the role as matters and wolves as home. (49)

Thus, it insists that the only way to send the oppression of women is for men to stop seeing women as a subject and inferior being Alchonel asserted that;

Women should no longer be decorative accessories, objects to be  moved about, and companions to be flatted or claimed with promises, they should see themselves as nation’s primary fundamental roots, from which all else grows and blossom, women encourage to take a keen interest in the destiny of the country (77)

It is on this background that several African Feminist writers like Flora Nwapa, Zaynab Alkalie etc advocate equal rights for women. The writers are gradient in their approaches to women emancipation as they portray the ability of their rural woman to be part with men in farming

African male writers have presented better myths and images of women in their play. Writing, such writers include Wole Soyinka, Ngugi Wathiong and Olu Obafem have recognized the potentials of the women to complement the efforts of the men to transform the society in his play The trial of Dedan Kimath, the women is seen as they champion the oppressed Kenyans. She mobilize the youths mainly girls to free Kimath.

The imprisoned leader of man, man freedom fighters therefore, with the use of Rotimi’s work Our Husband has gone mad again, mainly act by men to enslave women will be analysed. Also, through the work of Osifisan’s morountodun, some cultural practices that forfeit women rights, personality shall be analysed and needs to stop.

Feminism Raji (1999:228) says feminism a concerns itself with contemporary agitation by women for social economics, political and cultural equality with male counterparts”. Most feminists are especially concerned with social, political and economic inequality between men and women.

First inaugurated in the sixties, feminist criticism proceeds from the assumption that “the history of all the societies is the history patriarch of male domination and exploitation of women, a situation which women clam has hundred the actualization of women’s possibilities aid potentials in all fields of human endeavour. Just as feminism clamed in murices, feminists behaves that literature represents a very strong infrastructural support of this patriarchal ideology Abram says:

See also  Chinua Achebe Short Stories as a Periscope to Igbo Worldview

Typically, the most highly regarded literary works on male protagonist to these, the female characters when they play a role are marginal end subordinate… and implicitly addressed to male readers either leave the women reader as an alien outsider or else solicit her to identify….and ways of perceiving.(208)

FEMINIST AETHESTIC IN OLA ROTIMI OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN AND FEMI OSOFISAN MOROUNTODUN

Feminism like Marxism is concerned about societal inequalities. It is also a literary ideology founded on the need to develop a female tradition of creativity to cause awareness on the high of women as the oppressed, deprived, subjugated and unfulfilled gender. It is directed against patriarchal hegemony which according to Josephy (2003) “gives men confidence, subordination the female to male or treats the female as an inferior being:

Marxism recognizes that women are oppressed, and attributes the oppresses to the capitalist/private property system. Thus, it insists that the only way to end the oppression of women is to overthrow the capitalism system (Christian, 1985).

Marxism and feminism as schools of thought are different but they have a meeting point while Marxism deals with class stratification between the wealthy and the poor, feminism discussion gender discrimination between the oppressing male and oppressed female. The bottom line is that they are both fighting for the same cause which is liberation of the people from oppression, exploitation and domination.

FEMINIST AETHESTIC IN OLA ROTIMI OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN AND FEMI OSOFISAN MOROUNTODUN

Feminism as an ideology later, pined a fertile ground in Africa in the 1960’s Obioma Nnaemeka (995) establishes the fundamental purpose of the discussion when she assets that:

Fermium provides the opportunity of evaluating attitudes and misconception about women which have buttressed all along both by African culture and the misogynous tradition of European colonial masters.(p.34)

Where are varieties of African feminism feminist writers like Acholonu behave that women should not be seen as objects to decorate the homes but they should be regarded as major contributors to the destiny of the nation without really affecting the roles as mothers and wives at home in her article titled “Buchi Emecheta” (1988) acholonu says:

Women should no longer be decorative accessories, objects to be moved about, and companions to be flattered or claimed with promises. They should see themselves as nation’s primary fundamental roots, from which all else grows and blossoms. Women must be encouraged to takes a keen interest in the destiny of the country. (p.65)

African feminist writers can be grouped in for the liberal and the radical Encydopeadia of feminist theory says liberal feminism “advocates equal rights for women”. The writers are gradient in their approaches to women emancipation as they portray the ability of their rural women of be at par with man in farming.

Writers in these categories include flora Nwapa, Zaynab Alkali and the base most of their early works on rural protagonists who are created to realize their fund potentials as human beings and to contribute the special demine quota to the general improvement of the society. The radical feminist writer on the other hand approaches women’s literature from materialist perspective.

It is an approach to feminist thinking and action which maintains that the sex gender system is the fundamental cause of women’s oppression. Writer in the category include Molara Ogundipa Leslie, Mariam Ba and Animata sowfall. Radical and liberal as types of African feminism are different in their approach to writings. Radical feminists are harsh, militant and most forceful form of feminism. Radicalists believers that women are oppressed as a result of her sex/gender while liberal are slow and lenient in their writings in the sense that, they advocates equal rights for men.

The rebel against anything that subjugates or relegates women to the background. The radicalists relegated women to the background. The radicalists and the liberalists advocates joint efforts across gender in solving human problems, aid in developing a solid society, again, they behave in education as a weapon that women need to challenge patriarchy.

On the whole the bottom line is that they are both fighting for the same cause which is the liberation of self expression, self fulfillment in a world that is male dominated. Talking about Zaynab Alkali’s the stubborn from the liberal perspective. Alkali compasses women’s need for economic independence but also the need for women to work with men to build a new society. Zaynab concerns in her works the plight of the rural woman, whose effort to satisfy the man is trivialized.

The novel encloses and records the heartaches and disappointment of the women in the society the presents the values of virtue and self determination for self construction of women in a patriarchal society. She endows with trampy through her tough and indomitable determination. She becomes truly liberated from humiliation, betrayal, oppression and brutalization in the hands of Habu Adams. Li finds education as the key to her freedom from male subjugation and dehumanization and therefore puts the past behind and focuses on the future.

See also  Attitude of Adolescents towards the Learning of Vocational Skills in Secondary Schools

Zaynab builds a vision of a better’s life based on economic independence, self sacrifice and solidarity between men and women. Also, we shall consider Marian Ba’s so long a letters from the radical perspective. Ba’s works treat issues of conflicts for survival in an oppressive society and freedom from subjugation. An example of this is Aissaton in so long letter who struggled to survive in African patriarchal society.

Marian uses education as a weapon needed for the challenges of self determination. She creates two females friends Aissatou and Ramatoulaye who face matrimonial disappointments with their respective polygamous husbands. Aissation gets imbued with the near spirit of liberation gained through her education and intellect and refuses to accept any self made destroy to oppress her.

FEMINIST AETHESTIC IN OLA ROTIMI OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN AND FEMI OSOFISAN MOROUNTODUN

Women are portrayed in this novel in different guises of check patriarchy. They are portrayed as friend’s enemies within to expose the effects of patriarchy on them and to put a cheek on it. African male playwrights and other characters African male playwrights have presented better myths and images of women in their writings writers include Wole Soyinka, Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Olu Obafemi.

Soyinka autobiographies inevitably presents strong women because that was how things were in reality as we are familiar with the history of Abeokuta woman as a strong force for women’s mobilization against oppression. These playwrights depict their female characters as being strong, resourceful and skillful against the mundane opinion of some writers who point to women as being second fiddle.

They have presented myths and images of women in most of their works. We shall use Olu Obafemi wheals suicide syndrome and Ngug: Wa  Thiong’o the Trial of Dedan Kumathi to show that they have presented more positive images of women consistently. Olu Obafemi suicide syndrome also created a positive role for women in his play. To him women have a dynamic role in the society and should not be seen as second class citizens.

The market women in the play protest against the contemptible ways of the bourgeois class which claims there is austerity and declares emergency. Yeye Oja, the matriarchal head mobilizes her colleagues to fight against the ruling elite that keep them in object poverty. Also in his novel wheels, Obafemi recognizes the role which women are playing. This is conveyed through the characters of Abeke and Kemi, who both participate in their own individual significant ways in the task of nation building.

Kemi is portrayed positively and given a very wholesome personality. She comes across as vivacious courageous, sensitive and highly motivated participating actively in the social transformation of her society and takes a catalytic part in the entire process. To this extent, Obafemi has recognized the potentials of the women to complement the efforts of the men to transform the society.

In the trial of Dedan Kimathi, the playwrights identify women as an integral part of the guariila movement. The role women play cannot be over emphasized Mugo and Ngugi see women in the evolutional struggle as an embodiment of unity, loyalty and faithfulness. The women in the trial of Dedan Kimath are seeing as the champion of the oppressed Kenyans. She mobilizes the youths, mainly the body and girl to free Kimathi, the imprisoned leader of man, man freedom fighters.

FEMINIST AETHESTIC IN OLA ROTIMI OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN AND FEMI OSOFISAN MOROUNTODUN

 1.2    Statement of the Problem

The injustice and negative portrayal of Female in the Africa society and African literary works by most African male writer have lead to clashes between male and female writers. The problem has made writers to disagree in their perception and ideas about Feminism in African Fiction.

In some African literary works, there has been the problem of maltreatment of women by men in African fiction. The female characters are mostly maltreated and portrayed negative as men extremity to male characters. Therefore, this research is set to investigate the manners in which female children are deprived of their right in African society

1.3     Purpose of the Study

See also  The Influence of Concept Mapping and Students Academic Performance in Biology in Secondary Schools

The purpose of this study is to examine Feminist aesthetic, using two carefully, selected play as primary data, Ola Rotimi’s Our husband has gone mad again and Femi Osifisan’s Morountodun. Using radical feminism to show that women should be treated equally as men and that gender difference is no excuse for maltreatment.

This work aims at bringing out how cultural practices affect women, the pain it bring and the overall survival of female gender, the roles they could play in their community to make the society a better place it also focuses on how women have struggled side by side with their male counterparts against the general injustice and oppression that the few privileged.

1.4     Significance of the Study

The importance of women in any given society cannot be underestimated and this research work will be significant in the following ways:

  1. It will reveal how women take part in revolutionary activities.
  2. It will also reveal how women play an active role with men in the development of the society.
  3.  It will also help men to learn how to value their women knowing that the women are also human being.
  4. It will also help other researcher to have the fall knowledge on the important of women in the society and the need to treat them with care and love as the carriers of generation and life.

1.5     Research Methodology

This research will be based on library research, the primary source of information will be Rotimi’s Our husband has gone mad again and Osifisan’s Morountodun. The research shall also source for information from relevant internet.

1.6     Scope and Delimitation

The scope of the study shall be limited to Feminist aesthetic in Ola Rotimi’s Our husband has gone mad again and Femi Osofisan’s Morountodun. The scope will not extend to other areas; as a result, the limitations will by no means affect the result of the study.

1.7     Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this research work are intended specifically;

  1. To ascertain why women are maltreated in African society using Rotimi’s Our husband has gone mad again and Osofisan’s Morountodun
  2. To examine and investigate hoes women are represented in African fiction
  3. To also examine the effect of deprivation of women’s’ rights.

1.8     Bio-Data of Ola Rotimi

Oluwale Gladstone Emmanuel Rotimi was born on 13th April 1938. A native of Sapele Delta State, Nigeria. He attended St. Cyprians School, in Port Harcourt from 1945 to 1949 St. Judas School, Lagos, from 1951 to 1952 and Methodist Boys high School in Lagos before travelling to the United State in 1959 to study at Boston University where he obtained a BA in Fine Arts in 1965 he married Hazel Mea Guadreau.

In 1966, he obtained MA from Yale School of Drama where he earned the destination of being a Rockefeller foundation school in play writing and dramatic literature. On his return to Nigeria, he taught at the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) during 1960s due to political condition in Nigeria he spent much of this 1990s living in Carribbean and the United State, where he taught at Manchester College.

His work of art include to the God of Iron, Our husband has gone mad again (1966) The Gods are not to be blame (1968) Holding Talles (1978) Oyonramwen Nogbasi (1971) hopes of the living dead (1985) When the criminals become judges . (Unpublished) Ola Rotimi passed into glory on 18th August, 2000 at the age 62.

FEMINIST AETHESTIC IN OLA ROTIMI OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN AND FEMI OSOFISAN MOROUNTODUN

1.8.1 Bio Data of Femi Osofisan

Babafemi Adeyemi Osofisan was born on June 1946, a native of Eronwon Village in Ogun State. Osifisan attended primary school at Government school Ife and Secondary school at Government College, Ibadan. He attended University of Ibadan (1966-1969) he moved to University of Dakar, Senegal and postgraduate studies Sarbonne Paris. He held of faculty positions at the University of Ibadan. He became a professor of Theater Arts, Kwara State University and was retired in 2011.

He is Vice President (West Africa) at the Pan African writer association. In 2016, he became the first African to be awarded the Prestigious Tholia Prize by the International Association of theater Critics. His selected works are Kolera Kolej (1975) The chattering and the song (1977) Morountodun and other plays (1982) Minted Coins (1987) Another Rafle (1988) Once upon four Robbers (1991) “Twingle Twangle” (1992), etc. The Album of the midnight blackout (1994) Tegonni (1999) Theater and the Pete (1999) etc.

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

Related Articles

Back to top button