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This research work examined the home background and academic performance of student’s in Economics in Secondary Schools in Abak Local Government Area. Three research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted the random sampling technique in selecting the respondents and schools involved in the study.

Therefore, a population of the study comprised of 5,000 SS1-SS3 students in eleven (11) public schools. Three hundred (300) Economics students were selected from ten (10) Secondary schools. Independent t-test was used for the analysis of data.

It was revealed from the findings that students’ academic performance depend largely on home background. Hence it was recommended that parents should ensure proper upbringing of their wards through proper home training and discipline and also provide learning materials and encouragement for their children.



1.1   Background to the Study

The investigation on home background and students’ academic performance in Economics in Abak Local Government Area has attracted the interest and concern of researchers and other educational stakeholders. Home background may be seen as those environmental variables in the home which in one way or the other influence the child upbringing and achievement in school.

The psychological factors and their effects on academic situations are the growing concerns of the educational researchers and practitioners. Achievement refers to the act of gaining something or the state or condition of having achieved or accomplished something. According to Steve (2005) a study of achievement in academic process would require complete family, community, and school histories.

Home and types of family structure, socio-economic backgrounds are essential aspects in development of student’s personality and academic performance. These variables are relevant in the study of academics performance (Farlend, 2001, Higbee & Thomas, 2010).

The home has a great influence on a child’s psychological, emotional, social and economic state. Ajila and Olutola (2005), opines that home background can influence an individual, since parents are the first socializing agents in an individual’s life.   This is because the home background in the context of a child affects his reaction to life situations and level of performance.

Although, school is responsible for the experiences that make up an individual’s life during school periods, yet parents and the child’s experience at home play tremendous roles in building the personality of the child and making the child a functional adult. Students learning and academic attainment is influenced by the interplay of their personalty, family and school characteristics.

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According to Eweniyi (2005), different factors are capable of influencing the academic performance of a child. Such factors may be a child’s internal state (intelligence, state of health, motivation anxiety etc) and their environment (availability of suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like good classrooms, textbooks and well-equipped laboratories).

Clemens (2008) and Emeke (2010) have attributed the cause of poor academic performance to a combination of personal and institutional factors. Personal factors relate to the individual’s intelligence, knowledge and ability. While institutional factors are family or parental influences, societal related factors. Student/teacher related factors are correlates of learning outcome.


In the same vein, Sogbetan (2009) and Hassan (2011) among others have examined the causes of poor academic performance among secondary school students and identified the following factors: intellectual ability, poor study habit, achievement motivation, lack of vocational goals, low self-concept, poor family structure and anxiety.

The consequences of these include indiscipline in schools and low level of educational standard. While researchers tend to agree that household quality is an important determinant factor in influencing student outcomes.

There is a consensus about the relationship between specific parental socio-economic background such as age, income and education (Green, 2007 & Ingensoll, 2009). It is assumed that combination of parents’ socio-economic background can be a good predictor for students’ academic performance in Economics.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

 The challenges of poor academic performance of students in Economics have been a serious issue in the educational sector. Nigerian students come from different ethnic groups with diverse political, economic, social, and moral views. As such, when these people to the school, can result in behavioural conflict that influence students’ academic performance positively or negatively.

Studies over the years on parental education, incomes and type of family as determinants of students’ academic performance has failed to in-cooperate the modern societal context (Clay, 2009).

Hence, this research is carried out to ascertain the extent to which home background variables in the form of type of family and educational level of parents influence the academic performance of secondary school student in Economics in Abak Local Government Area.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to examine the home background and academic performance of secondary school students in economic in Abak Local Government Area.  Specifically, the study is aim at examining whether:

  1. Parental income influences students academic performance in Economics.
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2.)    Parental educational background enhances students’ academic performance in Economics.

3.)    Type of family structure influence students’ academic performance in Economics.

1.4   Research Questions

1.)    What is the relationship between parental income and student academic achievement in Economics?

2.)    How does parental educational background influence academic performance of students in Economics?

3.)    What is the relationship between the type of family structure and student’s academic performance in Economics?

1.5   Research Hypotheses

1.)    There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students from parents with good income and those without good income.

2.)    There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students whose parents are well educated and those whose parents are not well educated.

3.)    There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students from polygamous family and those from non-polygamous family.


1.6   Significance of the study

This research work intends to be a great benefit to many people that will come across it with reference to parents, councilor, teacher, students, educational planners, lecturers and nation at large.

The study will make parent to be aware of the influence of their home background on their children negatively or positively in relation to their academic performance.

The study also suggest to prevents and guardians and people alike to make good use of the home to make their children a wards comfortable in school or at least encourage them to bear with their sponsors inability to provide them all the necessary school materials.

To the educational planners, the study will enlighten them on the importance of planning the school curriculum with flexibility to suit different cultural environments and the importance of providing quality teachers and adequate classroom factors.

Teacher and lecturers can gain a lot from this research. It will inject into the teaching profession a good understanding of why the students perform the way they do academically and otherwise and this will enable the teachers adopt a variety of teaching technique and manage this class factors properly as to allow the different types of students benefit from their study.

To the counselors, it will yield a good basis for students counseling on educational placement and vocational choice.


To the Nation, adherence to the recommendations of the study will breed a set of qualified and socially national youths.

1.7   Basic Assumptions of the Study

Pupils are taught under similar teaching and learning conditions and irrespective of their individual differences.     It is assumed that parent’s financial status determines the level of academic preparation for a child provided in the home environment for learning.

However, it is also assumed that no matter the level of wealth possessed by parents, if the child has no interest and readiness for learning their academic performance might not be improved.

1.8   Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited to senior secondary school in Abak Local Government. The results of this study are peculiar to this area of study and would be inappropriate to draw conclusion reached in this study elsewhere.


1.9   Limitation of the Study

Since the study is an after the fact study, it cannot be concluded with confidence that it is only the home background variable that can influence student academic performance.

 The study only identifies how home background variables correlates with students academic performance and does not identify the cause and effect relationship.

By nature, the study is less rigorous because there is less control over the independent variables. i.e the chosen parental background factors.

1.10  Definition of Terms 

The following terms will be used in the study as they are operationally defined.

Home background: These are the home factors which in one way or the other affects one life. In this study, it include: socio-economic status, parental educational background and type of family structure.

Academic performance: This is defined in this study as the mean score obtained by student in teachers made test in recent promotion examination.

Socio-Economic status: Is defined in this concept as the amount of money, materials goods one posse. The level of education and self esteem, prestige and social acceptability of one in the society.

Family structure: This is defined in the study as the number of parent present in the family or whether is family is intact or broken family.

Parental education: This is defined in the study as the level of education obtained by the present in the family or whether the parent is literate or illiterate.

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

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