Project Materials

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

DISCOUNT Sales!!! GET COMPLETE  PROJECT MATERIAL FROM US TODAY AT A DISCOUNT PRICE OF 50% WHICH IS  ₦1500 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 08127963962

 ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to explore the knowledge and attitude of people toward voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VHCT) in Ikot Edibon in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area. The design used   was a descriptive survey design. The population of study consists of male and female from the area of study age 14-49 year.

A simple random sampling technique was used to select the 3 unit for the study and same method was used to obtain the one hundred respondents. 16 items questionnaire were use to obtain the data which were analysed using frequency table and simple percentage.

Finding revealed that 80% respondents agreed that they were aware of VHCT, 81%  said  they could not utilize VHCT due to stigma and discrimination, 65% agreed that VHCT help one to receive appropriate  and immediate medical care, while 70% cited poor attitude of health workers and lack  of confidentiality as their  barrier. From the result above, it was recommended that public enlightenment, political commitment and support, availability, accessibility and confidentiality of services etc could encourage people to utilize the service. 

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes aids. HIV counselling and testing has been identified as the key entry point to prevention, care, treatment and support services. It is where people learn whether are affected and are helped to understand the implication of HIV infection and make an informed choice for the future. HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) is now acknowledged as an efficacious and pivoted strategy for both HIV and AIDS prevention and care (Pikard 2009).

According to united nation programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) (2016) nearly 12 million young people in the world (15-24 years of age) are living with HIV and AIDS and more than 7000 young people have become infected with HIV everyday.  Young have limited access to information and service.

In particular, young girls and young women are more biological vulnerable to HIV infection than matured women and men (UNAID/ Family International) (2004). According to Lyons, (2005) 60% of these young people are adolescents between 14-19 years.

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

Studies done both in developed and developing countries recognised adolescent friendly services such as Voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VHCT) as the best tool for educating adolescent about HIV  and AIDS related risks. The majority of adolescent may be at risk of HIV infection due to their engagement in unsafe sex. Young people can also be at risk of HIV infection from unsafe infecting drug use exposure to contaminated blood product or unsterilized skin piercing procedures. In Africa alone, an estimated 1.7 million young are infected annually.

Adolescent are particularly vulnerable to HIV because of the strong influence of peer pressure and the developing of their sexual and social identities, which often lead to experimentation. As they are initiating sexual behaviour, counseling for safe practice is vital. They should be counselling to delay their sexual dept and practice abstinence (Lyons, 2005). The provision of HIV and AIDS related counselling services in Nsit Ubium started in 1994 3 years after the four AIDS cases were identified in Nsit Ubium.

See also  Altitude of Health Worker towards Utilization of Safety Devices in Hospital

At the beginning, these services were provided mainly by Faith Based Organization (FBOs) and Non-governmental Organization (NGOs) to clients who sought such services. Effort to establish voluntary counselling and testing in the public sector started 1996 after the Nsit Ubium Local Government AIDS project (AAP) started implementing its activities in Ikot Edibon village Nung Nko, Ekpuk Akpan Obio Iko, Nung Obio Ekong respectively prior to 1995, people who were diagnosed with AIDS or those tested HIV-positive were not informed of their test results. The main reasons for this being poor laboratory facilities in the country and subsequent inability to produce reliable test results, as well as the absence of the counselling culture in the health care system.

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

In 1999, the number of HIV services in the Local Government showed that those services were in high demand and recommended their expansion to all districts. In response to this, counselors were trained from 2000 to 2001. Since then VCT services have expanded gradually.

In October, 2014, the government of Nsit Ubium commenced a programme of providing the self-saving antiretroviral drugs to HIV/AIDS patient in which the target was to provide treatment with antiretroviral 100 patients by the end of 2008. However, accomplishment of this target had been slow, partly due to inadequate and slow identification of those who were HIV injected and eligible for treatment.

Surveillance reports produced by the Local AIDS Control Programme estimated that only about 25% of Nsit Ubium Local Government knows their HIV status many years, the client initiated voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) has been the main approach through which individuals know their HIV status. The approach has been quite useful in reinforcing HIV prevention especially in healthy people, but falls short of capturing important groups such as patients who presents to health care facilities with HIV-related condition.

As antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were available and provided free, it became necessary to expand the model of HIV testing and counselling. In 2007, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare adopted the provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) in which health care practitioner would recommend HIV testing and counselling to persons attending health care facilities as parts of standard prevention, treatment, care and support services.

Recently, a Non-Governmental Organization known as Family Health Initiative (FHI) and other bodies have taken up the responsibility of free counselling and testing, hence the reason for this study is to know the level of knowledge of people and their attitude toward these services that are available.

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Despite the critical importance of voluntary HIV counselling and testing, the people of Ikot Edibon in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area have been observed not to avail themselves of the health services. Although advance has been made in treating Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the epidemic remains a critical public health issue and concern in all communities across the country and around the world.

See also  The Knowledge And Attitudes Of Men Towards Family Planning

Also in spite of increased number of facilities offering Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT) in Ikot Edibon Village in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area, majority of people remain unaware of their status and despite decades of Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT) implementation, additional research is needed to help in understanding the best approach for increasing the utilization of Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT) and reduction of HIV related risk in the contest of Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT).

During the researcher’s critical experience at the health facilities in Ikot Edibon, it was noticed that majority of people do not utilize the service of Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT) and that some patients go to the health centres for other health problems like pretest for marriage before they are tested for HIV positive patients. These issues prompted the researcher to explore the knowledge and the prevention of HIV among the people of Ikot Edibon, Nsit Ubium Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

1.3     Specific Objectives

  1. To determine the awareness of the community members about Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT) services in Ikot Edibon Village, Nsit Ubium L.G.A.
  2. To explore the community members perceived benefits associated with HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) services in Ikot Edibon Village, Nsit Ubium L.G.A.
  3. To explore members perceived barriers associated with HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) services in Ikot Edibon Village, Nsit Ubium L.G.A.
  4. To determine the attitude of the community members about Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT) services in Ikot Edibon Village, Nsit Ubium L.G.A.

1.4     Delimitation/Scope of the Study

This study generates information on the attitude and perception of the community members towards the uptake of counselling and testing. This information will help the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and its Implementing partners to design appropriate intervention for promoting voluntary HIV counselling and testing.

1.5     Research Questions

  1. To what extent is the population aware of the voluntary HIV counselling and testing services?
  2. What are the attitudes of community members towards HIV counselling and testing services?
  3. What are the community members perceived barriers associated with HIV counselling and testing services.
  4. What are the community perceived benefit associated with HIV counselling and testing services?

 1.6     Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the public, Government, health educators and future researchers. The findings from the study will create more awareness to the public on the benefits of utilizing the services of voluntary HIV counselling and testing to know their HIV status as this will prevent the spread of the infection. The result of this study will health educate the clients on the importance of Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT) and the role its plays in preventing, reducing and controlling the spread of HIV infection.

See also  The Impact of Environmental Variables and the Learning of Government among Secondary Schools Students

The study will enable Government and Nongovernmental Organization to regularly sensitize the public about Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VHCT). This study will also serve as a reference point or material for future researchers.

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms

Attitude: Allport et al (1935) defined an attitude as a mental or neural state of readiness organized through experience exerting a directive or dynamic influence on the individual response to all objectives and situations to which it is related. A simpler definition of attitude is a mindset or tendency to act in a particular way due to both an individual’s experience and temperament.

Perception: Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world (Lindsay and Normal, 1977). In other words, a person is confronted with a situation or stimuli, the person interprets the stimuli into something meaningful to him or her based on prior experience. However, what an individual interprets or perceived may be substantially different from reality.

Home: A household which has member of family living in it.

Counselling: This is an interactive learning process contracted between counselor(s) and client(s) by the individual, families, groups or institutes, which approach in a holistic way, social, cultural, economical and/or emotional issues counselling may be concerned with addressing and resolving specific problems, making decision, coping with crisis, improving relationships, developmental issues, promoting and developing personal awareness, working with feeling, through perceptions and internal or external conflicts.

The overall aim is to provide clients with opportunities to work in self-defined ways towards living in more satisfying and resourceful ways as individuals and as members of the broader society (EAC Definition of Counselling adopted AGM, 1995).

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

Community: Is a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government and often have a common cultural and historical heritage.

HIV Test: A test for the human immunodeficiency virus, the cause of AIDS. HIV tests are designed to detect antibodies to the HIV virus or the HIV itself (Medicine Net Inc., 2012). HIV testing is a step by step procedure done by counselor to conduct HIV test.

Uptake: Uptake is an absorption or incorporation of something into a body of an organism. In this study, the uptake of counselling and testing mean the usage of counselling and testing services.

Awareness: Awareness is a state of having knowledge or ability to perceive, to feel or to be conscious of events, objects or sensory patterns. In this level of consciousness, sense data can be confirmed by an observer without necessarily implying understanding (Wikipedia, 2012).

Adolescence: The transition from childhood to adulthood that is marked by district biological cognitive and social-culture change.

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE TOWARDS VOLUNTARY HIV COUNSELLING AND TESTING

Mr. Harrison

Project Gurus is a subsidiary website owned by Harrilibrary Integrated Services which was registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria that was established in 1990 vide Companies and Allied Matters Act no 1 1990 as amended, now on Act cap C20 Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Our aim and objective is to assist students all over the world on their educational research works. We are committed toward assisting students at all level of education in their academic work. We have a team of seasonal writers who are vested with the current knowledge in research work. For more information contact on via Email @[email protected] or WhatsApp us on +2348127963962

Related Articles

Back to top button