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Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

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Abstract

This study investigated instructional materials and academic performance of Economics students in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. One hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. A survey design was adopted and the population of the study was all SS 2 students in Nsit Ibom.

Random sampling was used to select a sample size of 100 students from four (4) selected secondary schools from the area. The instrument used for data collection was the Economics Achievement Test (EAT). The data collected were analyzed using independent t-test statistical technique.

The result shows that students who were taught with instructional materials outperformed their counterparts who were taught without instructional materials. The study recommended that institutions’ administrators should provide the enabling environment for teachers to work effectively by making available instructional materials for teaching and learning.

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Instructional media/materials are not simply chosen for the sake of using resources in classroom instruction. Mainly, these numerous instructional media can aid in attaining the instructional objectives set at the beginning of the course, and help in facilitating the students’ learning.

When instructional media are appropriately selected, these can facilitate the effective learning acquisition of the students. These can uphold their active participation in the classroom tasks and activities. These may further enhance their comprehension of the subject matter when, of course, chosen and utilized appropriately. According to Ugwu (2008), the reason for using instructional media directs to an important discussion on the proper selective and utilization.

It is important to remember that one of the activities in science is experimentation. It provides a forum for practicalising the theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom and for demonstrating the psychomotor skills of a teacher and learner. Economics is also regarded as a science because it adopts the scientific method. The scientific method involves the following: observation, formulating a hypothesis, collection of data, organizing or analyzing the data, formulating laws, testing the laws and predicting on the basis of the laws.

However, many students see most concepts in Economics as abstract and irrelevant to their lives due to lack of engaging classroom activities (Kolawole and Oginni, 2009). Laboratory and field work aid the understanding of difficult concepts in the curriculum; creates opportunity for the testing of facts and theories in science.

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It is believed that learners can achieve more if given the opportunity to use instructional materials on what they have been taught in the classroom. Demonstration and experimentation thus gives room for better attainment of lesson objectives, since it depends on the availability of equipment for proper understanding, development and application (Ugwu, 2008).

One of the goals of education in Nigeria is the acquisition of appropriate skills, the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competences as equipment for individuals to live in and contribute to the development of the society (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004).

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

The realization of this goal can be impeded by non-availability of materials and equipment that can ensure effective teaching and learning. Iwuazor (2000) observed that as appropriate instructional media are chosen in the delivery of the course contents, students will be guided to improve their learning, performance rate and achievement.

Whether traditional or newer instructional materials media, these are indeed relevant to the process of teaching and learning. Most notably, teachers also have to take into consideration the students’ learning styles and preferences. Their learning characteristics will also help to determine what and how to use them effectively in instruction.

Many authors have, however, reported the issue of inadequacy of standard instructional materials in educational institutions in Nigeria (Ogunleye, 2007).

This is largely attributed to the persistent poor funding of the education sector. Over the years, financial allocation to the education sector has been inadequate for the realization of educational objectives. There is therefore inadequate science equipment and other materials for learning in educational institutions at all levels in the country.

For instance, many authors have observed the ineffective teaching of both the physical and social science subjects in educational institutions in Nigeria due to non-use of appropriate instructional materials for teaching, among other factors. Consequently, there is poor performance of students in this subjects in both internal and external examinations (Iyekekpolor, 2006). This situation calls for urgent attention.

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

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1.2   Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian vision 20-20 will be a mirage if the abysmal performance of students in secondary schools is not checked on time. Researchers have observed that memorization of facts have replaced experimentation in some of the Nigerian schools. This study is an attempt to find out if the use of instructional media in the teaching of Economics in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area can help improve students’ academic performance.

A relationship appears to exist between the use of instructional materials be it standard or improvised and the actual performance of students in Economics. It is for this reason that this research is being carried out to look into the relationship that exists between instructional materials utilization and students’ performance in Economics in senior secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

If these materials are there for teaching and learning, do they pose positive or negative impacts on students’ performance? Why? This seems to depend on how these materials are used.

However, there are other factors which may affect the academic performance of students in Economics. Such factors include teacher-learner relationship, learning environment, learner’s interest, learner’s age, teaching method and attitude.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research study is to:

  1. find out if the use of instructional materials has effect on students’ academic performance in Economics.

1.4   Significance of the Study

The study will keep all the stakeholders in education better informed if there is a positive influence on the use of instructional materials on students’ performance in Economics. These will help them plan to produce, make available for usage and encourage the use of these materials in teaching and learning of Economics.

It will help teachers appreciate the benefits of using instructional materials in teaching and will encourage them to improvise where the standard ones are unavailable. Teachers work in the classroom will be enhanced, made easy, and time, effort, and energy saved during lesson.

The study will also help the students appreciate the need for the use of instructional materials in learning. This in turn will improve their academic performance in Economics.

It will help educational administrators formulate policies that will ensure frequent and effective utilization of instructional materials. Educational administrators will be encouraged to organize workshops and seminars on the proper utilization of instructional materials, and on the development of improvised instructional materials.

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1.5   Research Question

The following research question was developed to help in the investigation of the effect of instructional materials usage on the academic performance of Economics students.

  1. Is there any significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and students’ performance in Economics? 

1.6   Research Hypothesis

The hypothesis below was formulated to guide the study:

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught Economics using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.

1.7   Definition of Terms

For the purpose of clarity, the following terms are defined as they are used in this study.

Instructional Materials: These are educational resources used to improve students’ knowledge, abilities and skills, to monitor their assimilation of information, and to contribute to their overall development and upbringing.

Ntuk (2004) sees instructional materials as those devices, objects, things or materials that are used by teachers to transmit, transfer and share their encoded lesson with their learners who will decode such lessons by analyzing and interpreting them to facilitate effective learning.

Improvisation: Improvisation is the making of substitute from local materials found at home or school premises when the real or original equipment is not available.

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Secondary Schools

Mr. Harrison

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