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Microbial Characterization of Some Water Sources in Akwa Ibom State

Microbial Characterization of Some Water Sources in Akwa Ibom State

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ABSTRACT

The study aimed at evaluating the microbial load of stream, rain, and borehole water source in Afaha Nsit and its characterization to determine their fitness on human consumption and uses. The evaluated water include, stream, rain and borehole water in Akwa Ibom State [Afaha Nsit]. Biochemical parameter were determined; pour plate method using selective media which were employed to determine the enteric bacteria and pathogens present in water sample.

Bacteria isolate were characterized adopting the standard method and isolate were further subjected to wet mounting. Indole and catalyst test using plasma in the blood. The total bacteria count revealed that stream water has the highest total bacteria mount of 0.38 xi 0 CFU/ML. While ran water had 0.35 xl and borehole water ‘had the lowest total bacteria count of about 0.2 x103 CF U/ML.

The microbiology isolated were Monococcus, Diplobacillus and Spirochete. In conclusion, most of the stream and rain water are unsafe for drinking as are low quantity threshold, thus, the stream and rain water require further purification to ensure suitability for human consumption and there is urgent need for provision of portable water to prevent outbreak of water borne disease and its epidemic nature. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Water of good drink quality is of basic importance to human physiology and man’s continued existence depends very much on its availability. (Lamikanra, 1999: FAO, 1997). The provision of portable water to the rural and urban population is necessary to prevent health hazards (Nikoladze and Akastal, 1989; Lemb 2002). Before water can be describe as portable, it has to comply with certain physical, chemical and microbiological standard, which are designed to ensure that the water is palatable and safe for drinking (Tebutt, 1983).

Portable water is define as water that is free from diseases producing micro-organism and chemical substance that are deleterious to health (Thehoronge and Nigoddy, 1995). Water can be obtainable from a number of source, among which are stream, lakes, river, ponds, rain spring, and well (Linsely and Fra, Zini 1979; Kolade 1982).

Unfortunately, clean, pure and safe water only exist briefly in nature and is immediately polluted by prevailing environmental factor and human activities. Water from most source is therefore unfit for immediate consumption without some sort of treatment (Ragmond 1992).

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Following the theory of creation, it is clear that water is as old as man. From time immemorial, man has resorted to the use of this unique commodity of domestic and other purpose, most of our water supplies are from surface water which include, rivers, steam, lake, ocean, seas and there water bodies are likely to be polluted with domestic waste, industries and agricultural waste.

As population increases, the problem become more serious and as such, water can endanger the health and life of human being because when polluted by fecal material, it become potential carrier of pathogenic organism (Carpenter, 1977). Wide varieties of microorganism antigenic to human are transmitted by contaminated water. usually, these organism are inhabitants of the intestinal tract and are introduced into portable water by fecal contamination.

Water is of course, absolutely essential to life, not only human life both all lives, animal and vegetable. Most of the biochemical reaction that occur in metabolism and growth of living cells involved water and all take place in water (Comp et al, 1974).

Man uses water not only for drinking purpose but also for bathing, washing laundering, heating, air conditioning, agriculture stock raising and gardens, industrial processes and cooling water, power and stream power. The ground water, well, borehole, many people have defined ground water in different ways.

Microbial Characterization of Some Water Sources in Akwa Ibom State

Ground water is subtler water that occur where all pores in the soil or rock counting material were saturated (Pelezer et al 1992). The atmospheric water which include rainfall. All water bodies consist of varity of bacterial and other micro-organism like the algae, fungi, which inhabit these natural water from external environment (Pelezer Reg 1997).

The generally of bacteria are mostly archabacter, and vibrio. These are gram negative, the gram positive bacterial which are found in water include, Micrococcus, Archabacter and Actinomycentes (Gebharal 1975). Tap water, as one of the water source is mostly used domestically. It is observed that tap change sometime the water tap will be clear this calls for load in order to be sure of it portability (Bonde 1997).

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Natural water contain not only then natural flora but also microorganism from soul and possible from animals or sewage. Surface water in stream or pools and stored water in lakes and aired ponds very considerably in microbial content. (Frazier 1978) water according to my research is broadly divided into three types surface water which include; stream, river, lake sea, and oceans (Kelman et al 1957).

The increase in drinking water from different source especially in Akwa Ibom State has made necessary to investigate the microbial content of water. Water is a potential carry of pathogenic organism that can engage human life. Most of drinking water source are often contaminates with different pollutant like face, animal and plant waste, making such water unfit for drinking if not treated.

The pollution of water with pathogenic organism are other pollutants can only be detected by carrying out microbiological assessment of such water. Most human disease such as typhoid paratyphoiud cholera, arboebiasis, trichinosis, gastroenteritis, sanonall shigellosis diphtheria, giadia, ranunculus etc are known to be water borne disease (Ewing ton et al 1971).

Water born disease are those disease which have water as their vehicle an mission these disease are capable of destroying a whole community if not checked. Therefore the quickest ways to prevent outbreak of these disease and to determine the portability of such water source is to determine a microbial load or content, if the microbial content is not with acceptable limit, such water source should be condemned immediately (Fair et al 1970).

Microbial Characterization of Some Water Sources in Akwa Ibom State

1.2     Statement of Problem

The availability of drinking water has been reduced significantly due to the current urbanization and road construction experience in Afaha Nsit. High accumulation of microbial waste, discharge of sewage jumping of industrial waste biodegradable and non-biodegradable solid waste in the major source of water (i.e. the stream) to the rural community, has ported serious health related issues as such there is need to evaluate the source of water supply (the stream, rain and borehole water) in Afaha Nsit.

Beside owing to the current incidence of typhoid and other water bone diseases encountered in rural area, this issue prompt the research on microbial and physic chemical analysis of water from different sources.\

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1.3     Research Questions

  1. What are responsible for high microbial load in stream water, rain and borehole water?
  2. Is the stream, rain and borehole pathogenic content high or low?
  3. Can streams with high microbial load give rise to water borne disease if consumed?
  4. What are the micro-organism isolated in the streams, rain and borehole water?
  5. Which techniques can be used in identification of microorganism in stream, rain and borehole water?

1.4     Objective of the Study

 The specific objective of this project work is as follow:

  1. To investigate microbial level of stream, rain and borehole water contain pathogens.
  2. To determine the pathogenic content of stream, rain and borehole water
  3. To compare the microbial load of three (3) selected water (stream, rain and borehole).
  4. To identify the type of micro-organism isolated in stream, rain and borehole sample.
  5. To determine the techniques used in identification of microorganism in stream, rain and borehole water samples.
  6. To determine the physicochemical parameters in 3 source of water.

1.5     Significance of the Study

This study will be advice to educate people on the harmful effect of polluted water due to the presence of microbial load found in it and to warn them to stop contaminating steam and other source of water with human faeces, plants and animal waste into the water bodies. Also, advice industries on the harms against polluting water bodies like rivers, ocean and sea, etc with industrial waste and product which can be carcinogenic to human beings.

1.6     Limitation of the Study

  1. There was financial difficulty (Constrain)
  2. Lack of available reliable data
  3. In availability of all the equipment to carry out the practical.
  4. The time was too short to carry out this research.
  5. Inadequate power supply
  6. Lack of network

1.7     Scope of the Study

the study was to put under control by limiting its scope to microbial loads in three (3) selected water sample (stream, rain and borehole), it effect mode of transmission, caused, prevention, controls, remedial measures taken by the W.H.O, economic importance and microbial load test carried out for its characterization isolation in Afaha Nsit.

Microbial Characterization of Some Water Sources in Akwa Ibom State

Mr. Harrison

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